Historic-Messianic interpretation of Daniel 9 24-27; Concluding thoughts

The essence of the Daniel 9 24-27 prophecy is that, within 500 years from the restoration of Jerusalem, and therefore before the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, the Messiah would arrive.  While both the Liberal-critical and Dispensational interpretations of Daniel 9 24-27 effectively remove Jesus from the prophecy, in the historical-messianic interpretation the prophecy finds its fulfillment in the Christ-events 2000 years ago. Daniel 9 confirms that God knows the future precisely, conclusively proves Jesus Christ to be the true and only Messiah and affirms the truthfulness and reliability of the Bible.

490 years
Seventy Weeks of years

To summarize the messianic-historical interpretation, the decree of Artaxerxes in 478/7 restored Jerusalem to the Jews.  In AD 26 or 27, 483 years later, Jesus was baptized.  Three or four years later, in AD 30 or 31, He was crucified.   Another approximately three or four years later, in AD 33 or 34, the exclusive role which Israel played in the plan of God came to an end.  The period from 26/27 to 33/34 is seven years, with the crucifixion “in the middle of” these seven years.  Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 AD, after the end of the seventy sevens.

This interpretation has been dominant over the centuries, but has, in recent centuries, been replaced by the Liberal Critical and the Dispensational views of Daniel.

Daniel 9:24 Goals

The fulfilment of the goals is discussed in When will the Daniel 9:24 goals, set by for the 490 years, be fulfilled?  In summary:

The first two goals, namely “to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins do not mean that a complete and utter end will be made of sin.  In the context of the prophecy these goals given to Israel to fulfill.  They were to show their loyalty to God when the Messiah appears.  But Israel failed.

According to the New Testament the third and fourth goals—“to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness”—were fulfilled by Christ’s death.

The fifth goal—“to seal up the vision and prophecy”—is understood as that the events of the final week, particularly the Cross, would validate the Old Testament promises of the coming Messiah.

The sixth goal— “to anoint the most Holy” —refers to heaven itself.  Christ’s death was a great victory over evil, and as we read in Revelation 5 and 12, Satan was cast out of heaven as a result (Rev. 12:5, 7-9).

A Good Fit

While objections can be raised against all four of the major interpretations of Daniel 9 24-27, the historical-messianic interpretation is not subject to the difficulties encountered by the other systems.  It recommends itself as the most adequate of the major interpretations.  The exact date of the crucifixion and of the end of the 490 years remains uncertain, but compared to the difficulties facing the other interpretations, the relative uncertainty of the chronology of the life of Christ and the events of the early church appears to be insignificant.

Reliability of Daniel

The essence of Daniel 9 24-27 is that, within 500 years from the restoration of Jerusalem (after the Babylonian captivity), and therefore before the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, the Messiah would arrive.  It is understandable that the Talmud places a curse on those who attempt to compute the seventy weeks of Daniel (Sanhedrin 97b (Soncino ed.), p. 659).

Liberal scholars suppose that Daniel was compiled in the second century BC, as history written in the form of prophecy, but the events predicted by Daniel 9 24-27 were fulfilled more than 100 years later.  Copies of Daniel have been available to the Qumran sect (Dead Sea Scrolls) more than 100 years before the crucifixion.  The accurate fulfill­ment of the prophecy is therefore compelling support for the argument that Daniel is real prophecy written in the 6th century BC.

It is an irrefutable fact that Jesus Christ, the Messiah, began his public ministry 483 years (69 weeks) after Artaxerxes’ first decree.  Furthermore, the specifications of the prophecy find exact and complete fulfillment in the Christ-events of 2000 years ago.  This prophecy particularly points to His death:

(1) The nature of that death—murdered (cut off)
(2) His experience in that death—abandoned and rejected (not for himself), and
(3) The results of His death—atonement and everlasting righteousness

Supports our faith

A person who accepts Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of this prophecy is astounded by the mathematical exactness of the prophecy, received five hundred years prior to those tremendous events that changed the entire course of human history.  Daniel 9 24-27 confirms that God knows the future precisely.  It conclusively proves Jesus Christ to be the true and only Messiah.

It affirms the truthfulness and reliability of the Bible when predicting future events.  This gives confidence that we will one day see God with our own eyes.  The things that we read about in the Bible are really true.  There is a wonderful future ahead of us.

Means to and end

Daniel did not pray for a messiah of for the goals in verse 24.  He prayed for Jerusalem and the temple.  But the prophecy includes a Messiah and the goals because that was Jerusalem’s purpose.  Jerusalem was to be rebuilt to receive the Messiah.  490 years were awarded to Israel to fulfill  the goals in 9:24 through the Messiah,.  Israel would be restored, but as a means to an end.  The Messiah was the means and the goals were the end.  To remove these goals from Israel and Jerusalem is to remove the reason for Israel’s election.

Israel failed

Daniel must have been very sad to hear that the Messiah would be killed and the city would again be destroyed.  In his prayer he confessed that the destruction of Jerusalem in his time was the result of disobedience.  He must have realized that the prophesied destruction would also be the result of more disobedience.  And there is no mention of another restoration or reconstruction in the prophecy.  The prophecy ends in the accumulation of desolation and destruction.

If the Jews did not confirm their rejection of Jesus as the Messiah by the persecution of His Spirit-filled representatives, but rather accepted Jesus after His death, history would have been very different.

Isaiah 53

The emphasis upon the Messiah and His experience ranks this passage alongside the other great Messianic prophecies of the OT that point to Him as the suffering servant of God (Ps 22. Isa. 53).  Daniel 9 24-27 complements Isaiah 53 by specifying when the Man of sorrow will arrive.  The following is an extract from Isaiah 53:

2 … He has no appearance that we should be attracted to Him.  3 He was despised and forsaken A man of sorrows … 5 He was pierced through for our transgressions … 6 … the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him.  7 He was … afflicted, Yet He did not open His mouth … 8 By oppression … He was taken away; … He was cut off out of the land of the living For the transgression of my people, to whom the stroke was due? 9 … He was with a rich man in His death … He had done no violence, Nor was there any deceit in His mouth. 11  … the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities. … He poured out Himself to death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet He Himself bore the sin of many, And interceded for the transgressors.

Consider some parallels between Daniel 9 24-27 and Isaiah 53:

In both the main character is “cut off”.  In Isaiah He is the man of sorrows (v3, 8).

Both refer to the atonement.  One of the goals of the seventy weeks is “to make atonement for iniquity” (v24) while “the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him” (Is. 53:6).  He Himself bore the sin of many (Is. 53:11).

In both this Person has a relationship with “the many”.  In Isaiah “the many” are justified (v11) and in Daniel He confirms a strong covenant with “the many” (v27).

Conclusion

There is no greater unfolding of the gospel provisions in all the prophetic Word than is revealed in Daniel 9 and in Isaiah 53.  The prophecy of Daniel 9 is precious because it sets forth Jesus Christ as our atoning sacrifice, made on Calvary 2000 years ago.   We are all sinners and do not deserve to live.  Through Him, through faith, we are justified from our sin.

TO: General Table of Contents
TO:  Daniel 9 Interpretations Overview
TO:  Daniel 9: List of available articles

3 Replies to “Historic-Messianic interpretation of Daniel 9 24-27; Concluding thoughts”

  1. Andries, I can answer your question but accept that I cannot prove it in such a limited space, you need to read my book.

    Dan 9:25 “Know therefore and understand, That from the going forth of the command To restore and build Jerusalem Until Messiah the Prince, There shall be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; The street shall be built again, and the wall, Even in troublesome times. NKJV

    What happened at the beginning of the first 7 weeks of Daniel?

    The book of Nehemiah starts with the enigmatic “Neh 1:1 In the month of Kislev in the twentieth year”. Here we are not told what could be related to this 20th year (not to be confused with the 20th year found in Neh 2:1) but we learn in the next few verses several things: the exiles are back in Judah, they are in disgrace and in trouble, the wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and its gates have been burned with fire.” Nehemiah was so affected by these news that he wept, mourned and fasted for days (Neh 1:4). Notice that at this point there is no mention that Nehemiah grieved for the absence of a Temple. It can only be explained by the fact that the Temple had already been rebuilt. (A fact that will be confirmed later in Neh 6:10).

    The sadness and tears of Nehemiah when he learned of the poor state of the city, his willingness to return and rebuild the wall (a colossal task that would take 12 years), the actions he would take years later to repopulate the city (Neh 11:1), show his unconditional attachment to Jerusalem. Should we be surprised that Nehemiah, the builder, was aware that it was the 20th years since the ‘Foundation of the Temple’ (the rebirth of the city) when he received the devastating news about the poor state of Jerusalem at the beginning of the book?

    Was the Foundation of the Temple an event of such importance that it could be at the origin of Daniel 70 weeks? Yes and the account of Ezra don’t leave any doubts in my mind.

    Ezra 3:10-13 When the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the LORD, the priests in their vestments and with trumpets, and the Levites (the sons of Asaph) with cymbals, took their places to praise the LORD, as prescribed by David king of Israel. With praise and thanksgiving they sang to the LORD: “He is good; his love to Israel endures forever.” And all the people gave a great shout of praise to the LORD, because the foundation of the house of the LORD was laid. But many of the older priests and Levites and family heads, who had seen the former temple, wept aloud when they saw the foundation of this temple being laid, while many others shouted for joy. No one could distinguish the sound of the shouts of joy from the sound of weeping, because the people made so much noise. And the sound was heard far away. NIV

    Here is an interesting pattern

    Found. of the Temple (21 y.) Start of wall’s repairs (12 y.) Wall is repaired

    Wall fully repaired (12 * 33 + 21y.) Yeshua born

    Yeshua born (12y.) Yeshua in the Temple (21y.) Yeshua dies

    From the start of the wall repairs to the 12 years old Yeshua in the Temple, there are 21 * 21 years.

    What happened at the end of the first 7 weeks of Daniel?

    There is a much neglected aspect of Daniel first 7 weeks. “The street shall be built again, and the wall, Even in troublesome times.” Do we have any trace of violence to justify this ‘major’ characteristic?

    -During the construction of the 2nd Temple: “Ezra 4:4 then the peoples around
    them set out to discourage the people of Judah and make them afraid to
    go on building.

    -From Nehemiah’s inquiry about the situation in Jerusalem in the 20th year..:
    people were “in great trouble and disgrace.” Neh 1:3.

    -During the time they rebuilt the wall:
    Neh 4:1 When Sanballat heard that we were rebuilding the wall, he became
    angry and was greatly incensed. He ridiculed the Jews, NIV
    Neh 4:12 Then the Jews who lived near them came and told us ten times over,
    “Wherever you turn, they will attack us.”
    Neh 4:16 From that day on, half of my men did the work, while the other half
    were equipped with spears, shields, bows and armor.

    In my chronology the repairs of the wall were completed 17 years before the end of Daniel first 49 years. What could have come next to justify that the whole period was characterized by ‘troublesome times’? And what major event could show beyond any doubts that the violence came to an end at a specific time?

    There is an event in the chronology of the post-exile that fits like a glove. This event is described in the book of Esther.

    In the 12th year of King Xerxes the Jews from all the provinces of the Persian Empire were going to be annihilated according a king’s decree obtained by the evil Haman (see Est 4:13-14).
    Est 3:13 Dispatches were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces with the
    order to destroy, kill and annihilate all the Jews-young and old, women and
    little children-on a single day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, the
    month of Adar, and to plunder their goods.

    Est 4:3 In every province to which the edict and order of the king came, there
    was great mourning among the Jews, with fasting, weeping and wailing.
    Many lay in sackcloth and ashes. NIV

    This psychological warfare fits perfectly well with the spirit of Daniel first 7 weeks. Fortunately, due to a miraculous reversal of the original plan, the massacre didn’t happen. King Xerxes authorized all the Jews of his kingdom to get organized and to destroy all their enemies. That day (which has been known ever since as the Day of Purim) has been celebrated by the Jews from all around the world.

    There is much more to add but unfortunately the space is limited. For instance it can be shown that Mordecai fits perfectly in the role of the ‘Anointed one a prince’ of Dan 9:24. Also that there is a logical reason to group the first 7 weeks and the next 62 weeks while keeping apart the last 7 weeks. My chronology highlights a perfect 2000 years between the 69th and 70th week of Daniel.

    So your answer Andries is this: The first 7 weeks of Daniel should be counted from the Foundation of the 2nd Temple to the First Purim.

    To anybody interested to learn more and see hundreds of awesome patterns never exposed before, I have written a book (282 pages) on the Bible chronology. It is called “EZEKIEL 4. The Master key to unlock the Bible’s chronology” . It can be freely downloaded from my website EzekielMasterKey.com

  2. Hi Andries,

    there is a major flaw with your interpretation. You have no explanation to justify the end of the first 7 weeks. Telling us that nothing specific happened at that time is quite arbitrary. Not being able to come up with a specific event should be a sign that you are looking at the wrong time in history. You have invested so much time studying Daniel 70 weeks prophecy, how can you be satisfied with an explanation that got such a big hole?

    Yves P.

    1. Hi Yves, In the Poetic Pattern of the prophecy the seven weeks relate to Jerusalem and to “built again” (9:25). The decree restored (gave back) Jerusalem, but obviously it took some years to rebuild it. First the walls had to be rebuilt, and then the city itself. But you are the chronologist. How do you explain the first 49 years? Andries

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