Is Jesus the Most High God? – List of articles on this website


Gabriel said to Mary that Jesus “will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High” (Luke 1:26-32). In the Trinity theory, Jesus and the Father are two co-equal Persons of the same Being. This would mean that the Son is also “Most High.”

Recently, I organized my articles and found that I have written about 40 articles on the nature of Christ.  In the current article, I provide a list of those articles with brief descriptions. I also wrote another nearly 20 articles on the historical development of the Trinity doctrine.

While the current article is simply a list of the articles, the article – Jesus is not the God, but He is God – is a summary of these articles and provides more detailed arguments


There are many views of the nature of Christ. They vary from Jesus as merely a human being, to the view that the Son is fully equal to and one with the Father, as in the Trinity doctrine. Between these two extremes, there are many other views, including the one proposed by this website, namely that Jesus always existed but only the Father is the Almighty uncaused Cause of all things.

I think that one of the reasons so many people adopt the Trinity formula without much thinking is that they find it difficult to understand how the Son can be both infinite and subordinate to God. For that reason, I attempt below to show how this is possible. In doing so, I am at risk, because I will be using terminology that is not found in the Bible. May God not hold that against me:


The Most High does not exist in time. He is not subject to time. Rather, the time, space, and matter of the universe exist somewhere inside Him.

Beyond this universe, there is an infinity. The intelligence and power through which this universe was created came from outside the time and space boundaries of the universe. That infinity is the Most High. Things exist because He exists (Rev 4:11).

Christ “is the Beginning (Col 1:18) of this universe. In other words, in order to bring forth this universe, the Most High has “begotten” the Son. This is why we read that God created all things THROUGH the Son. The Most High not only created all things through the Son; through the Son, He also upholds all things (Heb 1:3).

Jesus is the connection between God and the universe. Through Jesus, all creative and sustaining power flows from the Most High to the universe, and through Jesus, all thanksgiving and praise flow from the intelligent beings back to God.  “Every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.


The Son is not the uncaused Cause of all things. He is not “Most High.”

The Son always existed for God also created time by begetting His Son.

Jesus is the God of the Old Testament.  Every visible and personal appearance of God in the Old Testament is an appearance of Jesus, in the form of God.  See Jesus in the Old Testament.

This is my personal understanding of the nature of Christ. It cannot be confirmed from the Bible because the Bible does not explain Him in such terms.  But the Bible does confirm that Jesus always existed but is subordinate to the Most High, and the proposal above allows for that.


I have come to the conclusion that an error is a truth that has been taken too far. For example:


Even after Pentecost, the disciples viewed Christ as merely a man (Acts 2:22). Decades later, the New Testament writers (particularly Paul and John) developed an extremely high view of Christ but still presented Him as subordinate to the Father. But, after the church became the State Church of the Roman Empire, the emperors became the real heads of the formal church and forced the church to take the high view of Christ too far. Consequently, the formal church adopted the doctrine that the Son is equally the Almighty; the uncaused Cause of all things.


Early in the existence of the church, when Jews still dominated the church, the dominant view was that “it is necessary to circumcise them (the Gentiles) and to direct them to observe the Law of Moses” (Acts 15:5).

Paul wrote fervently against the view that man is justified “by the works of the Law” (e.g. Rom 3:19). These “works of the law” refer to the rituals and ceremonies of the law, of which circumcision was the main example (e.g. Gal 6:12). These “works of the Law” are not the same as good deeds.

At the time of the Reformation, Luther and Calvin were confronted with something similar, namely that the Catholic Church demanded that people conform to the rituals of the Church to be saved.  The reformers used Paul’s writings powerfully in their arguments.

But in their struggles against mother church, they took this truth too far and taught that nothing one does has an influence on salvation.  Consequently, they taught that God decides who will live and who will go to hell, irrespective of what man is or does. They choose to ignore the statements in the Bible that man will be judged by your deeds (E.g. Rom 2:6; Rev 2-:12).



Summary of these articles
Jesus is not God but He is God. Jesus is distinct from God, but always existed. Jesus prayed to God, but we worship Jesus. The Son can do nothing of Himself, but He is equal with God. The Son has life in Himself but received it all from the Father. God created all things, but through Jesus. So, Who is Jesus?

List of articles with brief descriptions
This is the current article. It also proposes how it is possible for the Son to be both eternal and subordinate to the Father.


As part of my investigation, I made detailed studies of three books, namely John’s gospel, Colossians, and the book of Revelation.

The book of Revelation
The article on the book of Revelation argues that t
he ancient Greek word theos is equivalent to the modern word “god.” In contrast, the modern word “God” refers exclusively to the Almighty. That article shows that Revelation uses the titles “God” and “the Almighty” only for the Father. The Father alone is the Creator, the Supreme Ruler of all creation, and the One we must worship. Revelation presents Jesus as subordinate to the Father but infinitely above the created universe.

Colossians Part I
What view does Colossians have of Christ Jesus? Is He called God?  Are we saved by Christ Jesus, or by God?  Who created all things and who reconciled all things; God or Christ Jesus?

Colossians Part II
Is Jesus God? The Most High created all things through Him. Christ still holds all creation together. He is distinct from God, but Jesus rules over all.


Philippians 2
On the topic of the nature of Christ, this is one of the most important Bible passages. It describes Jesus before, during, and after His life on earth. It says that, before He became a human being, He had equality with God. For some, this means that He is God. For others, it means that He is not God.

1 Corinthians 8:6
Interestingly, the Bible has fairly few explicit statements about the nature of Christ. In the synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark & Luke), except for a few verses that possibly say a bit more, Christ is merely a human being. We find the high Christology statements mostly in the writings of Paul and John. One of the few explicit statements of the nature of Christ is 1 Corinthians 8:6. It makes a clear distinction between the Most High God and the Lord Jesus Christ. The Trinitarian defense against this verse is that it divides the words of the Shema between the Father and the Son.

You make yourself out to be God.
To this accusation (John 10:33), Jesus responded, “I said, ‘I am the Son of God’” Some interpret this as a claim by Jesus that He is God. This article analyzes what the Jews said and what Jesus claimed to be.

I and the Father are one.
This is one of Jesus’ famous statements (John 10:30). Does that mean to be perfected in unity or literally that they are one Being?


Only Begotten Son
This title does not mean that Jesus is the Most High. However, since Jesus is the “only” begotten from the Father, He is God’s only true family. Because He was “begotten,” He was not created.

Firstborn of all creation
This is how Paul described Jesus in Colossians 1:15. This sounds as if He is part of creation; literally the first creation and/or the most important creation, but still part of creation.

Jesus did exist before He was born.
To become a human being, Jesus emptied Himself of the form of God and of equality with God. This article refutes the idea that Jesus was merely a human being, as proclaimed by Dale Tuggy in his high-quality website and podcast.

God created all things through His Son.
People who believe that Jesus is equal to the Most High need to show that Jesus created all things independent of the Father, but there are several verses that state that God created all things through His Son. In other words, the Most High is the Creator and His Son was the Medium through which He created all things.


Jesus is distinct from God.
This article highlights the differences between God and Jesus. For example, while God is invisible and the Source of all things, Jesus is visible. God refers to Jesus as “My Son” but Jesus refers to God as “My God.” Jesus also prayed to God and is currently at the right hand of God. 

The Almighty
Trinitarians think of Jesus as the Almighty, but they may not be aware that they directly contradict the Bible when they do that (e.g. Rev 19:15; 21:22).

Jesus is subordinate to God.
The Bible teaches explicitly Jesus is subordinate to God. For example:

      • God is the head of Christ” (I Cor 11:3).
      • He was subordinate to God both prior to His birth and after His ascension.
      • Everything that His Son has, He received from His Father.
      • Only the One “whom no man has seen or can see” is essentially “immortal” (1 Tim 6:16).

Jesus is subordinate to God in John’s gospel.
This is the gospel with the highest Christology but still shows that Jesus was subordinate to the Father before He became a human being and still is after He returned to the Father. For example:

      • God gave all judgment to the Son.
      • God gave the Son to have life in Himself.
      • The Father is the only true God.
      • Jesus called the Father “My God” and prayed to Him.


This section contains articles on the examples of high Christology in the Bible:

Jesus has equality with God.
They work together, create together, own all things together and together they receive equal honor.  Only the Son knows the Father and only the Son sees all things that the Father does. Both are “
I Am,” the King of kings, the Lord of the Sabbath, Creator, and Savior

Jesus has equality with God in John’s gospel.
Evidence from John’s gospel. 
To say that Jesus is both subordinate to equal with the Most High may seem like a contradiction, but it is true. I understand this as follows: When the Father and the Son are compared, the Son is subordinate, but both are infinitely above created beings, and in that sense they are equal.

We must worship Jesus.
The Bible commands us to worship only God, but we must also worship Jesus. Does that mean that He is God? The English word “worship” means “a strong feeling of respect and admiration for God or a god” (Cambridge dictionary). The Greek word is proskuneó. It means that respect is shown towards a god or a fellow human being. 
I also made a list of the worship verses in the New Testament.


Several articles discuss specific instances where theos refers to Jesus:

The Greek word theos appears about 1300 times in the New Testamenet. In 99.5% of these instances, it refers to the Father. But in about seven instances, it refers to Jesus. This article explains what theos means. There is no word in the ancient Greek that is an exact equivalent to the modern word “God.”

John 1:1 – Introduction
This is the best-known example of Jesus being called God. Jesus not only was in the beginning; He WAS the beginning, and therefore always existed.

John 1:1 – The Word
Does “the Word” refer to Jesus, or is it a personification of the Wisdom of God in creation?

John 1:1 – The Word was a god.
This article argues against this translation, as proposed by Jehovah’s Witnesses. In
support of their translation, Jehovah’s Witnesses argue that theos is a count noun.  Does this mean that John 1:1c must be translated, “the Word was a god?”

John 1:1 – The Word was God.
This translates theos as definite, but this article shows that theos in John 1:1c has a qualitative force and, therefore, should be translated, “the Word was like God.”

John 1:18
The original text of John 1:18 is disputed. Many ancient manuscripts refer to Jesus as huios (son) and not as theos (god). According to the textual critics, both are possible.

John 20:28
Thomas could not have called Jesus “my God” in John 20:28
because Jesus never taught that He is God and because the disciples afterward did not teach that Jesus is God.

Is Jesus called God in John’s gospel?
The title “God” appears more than 100 times in John, and in only 3 instances it could possibly refer to Jesus, and these three instances are debatable.  In other instances, John consistently makes a distinction between God and Jesus

Romans 9:5
Romans everywhere makes a distinction between God and Jesus. 14 translations of Romans 9:5 indicate that Jesus is God and 14 oppose it.  It is all a matter of punctuation, and all punctuation in the Bible is interpretation.

Hebrews 1:8
This verse refers to Jesus as theos but the next verse (Heb 1:9) says that God is His theos. Furthermore, the first verses of Hebrews 1 make an explicit distinction between Jesus and God and represent Jesus as subordinate to God.

This is an overview of the articles on the instances where the Bible refers to Jesus as theos.


Jesus has always existed. In fact, God created all things through Him.  Therefore, the question arises: Where do we find Jesus in the Old Testament? God is invisible but was seen in the Old Testament. To solve this riddle, this article finds evidence in the Old Testament of two distinct divine beings.

I am fond of listening to Dale Tuggy on this subject. He holds the mere man view of Christ, which I reject, but, generally, his podcasts are of a very good quality.

Church fathers described Jesus as “our god” but it is translated “our God.”


A number of the Christian writers of the first 300 years referred to Jesus as “our God.”  Trinitarian apologists use such phrases to argue that the church fathers, even before Nicene, believed that Jesus is God.  To prevent a repetition of the explanation of this practice, this article focuses on this topic.

This article focuses specifically on the early church fathers, but various other articles are available on this site that discuss the references to Jesus as God in the New Testament, including, Is Jesus called God?, Romans 9:5, Hebrews 1:8, John 1:1, John 1:18, John 20:28, and Is Jesus called God in John?       

Jesus is our God


Ignatius of Antioch describes the Son as “our God” but the Father as “the only true God.”

Irenaeus, similarly, referred to Christ Jesus as “our God.”  But he similarly also wrote:

We received the faith in “One God, the Father Almighty.”

Lord God of Abraham … who art the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the God … who rulest over all, who art the only and the true God, above whom there is none other God (Against Heresies 3.6.4)

He, the Father, is the only God and Lord, who alone is God and ruler of all… (Against Heresies 3.9.1)

This confusion does not exist in the original text but is caused by the translations.  To explain:

The modern word “God”

In modern English, we use the word “God” to identify one specific being.  It functions as a proper name for the Almighty; the One who exists without Cause.

The ancient word “god”

The ancient languages did not have the modern differentiation between lower and upper case letters.  Consequently, they did not have a word that is equivalent to the modern word “God.”  They only had words (theos in Greek) that are equivalent to our word “god.” The word “god” does not identify one specific being, but a category of beings. 

For example, in the Graeco-Roman world, they had a plethora of gods. Even the emperors were called as gods.  Paul confirmed, “indeed there are many gods and many lords” (1 Cor. 8:5).  The Christian God was regarded as one of the gods.

Describes many different beings

Words such as theos, therefore, had a much broader meaning than the modern word “God.”  For example, the following are called “god” in the Bible:

Moses at the burning bush

● Moses (Exodus 7.1),
● Angels (Psalm 8.5; cf. Hebrews 2.7),
● The divine council (Psalm 82.1, 6),
● Israel’s judges (Exodus 21.6, 22.8),
● The Davidic king (Psalm 45.6),
● Appetite (Philippians 3.19),
● Those who receive the word of God (John 10.34-35), and
● Satan (2 Corinthians 4.4).

Outside the Bible, the ancients also applied theos and similar words to exalted people and to the pagan gods, such as Zeus, the god of the sky, Apollo, god of the sun, Hermes, god of the roadways, and Hades, the god of the underworld. 

Theos in the Bible

Since such ancient words, such as those, were used to refer to a wide variety of beings, the writers of the New Testament very frequently added the definite article (the – ho in Greek) to indicate that the only true God is intended.  Sometimes they described Him as “the true god” or “the only god.”

Since the ancient word theos (god) had such a broad meaning and since “every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord” (Phil. 2:11), it was quite natural and appropriate for the Bible writers and the first Christian apologists to refer to the Son as theos.  However, for them, the Father remained the only true god.

Translations cause confusion

So the original text is clear.  All we have in the Greek Bible is the word theos.  Literally translated, Ignatius wrote that the Father is “the only true god” and the Son is “our god.” 

The confusion is caused by the translations.  Ancient words such as theos are translated as “god” or as “God.” It depends on the context. When modern translators think that the Almighty is intended, they translate theos as “God.” 

Most translators are Trinitarians which means that they assume that Jesus is equal to the Almighty Father; the Uncaused Cause of all things.  Therefore, they also translate theos as “God” when it refers to Jesus.  Consequently, the translations refer to Jesus as “God” rather than “god.”  That, however, does not accurately reflect the meaning of these ancient writers.

Furthermore, the phrase “only true God” is illogical, for the word “God” is not a category name.  It would have been more logical to translate this phrase as “the only true god.”  The same applies to John 17:3, where Jesus says that the Father is “the only true theos.”  This should be translated “only true god.”

Is Jesus God or god?

Whether we translate this as “God” or as “god” depends on what we mean by the word “God” and by whom we understand Jesus to be:

Ignatius described the Father as the only true god.  If he lived today, I think he would have preferred to translate his reference to Jesus as “god.”

However, Ignatius also described Jesus Christ in very elevated terms.  He is “the only-begotten Son.” This sets Him infinitely above all other beings, for it means that He came forth from the being of the Father.  He was begotten “before time began” and Himself was “being life.”  He described only the Father as “unbegotten.” In other words, only the Father exists without cause.  But still, Jesus is extremely close to the Father.  It is therefore quite possible to define the modern word “God” to include “the only-begotten Son.”  Then we can translate theos, when it refers to Jesus, as “God.”  That, however, would not make us Trinitarians, for the Father and the Son are not equal and they are not one Being.  

This is all very confusing and complex.  I guess my simple main point as follows: The fact that the translator capitalized the “G” cannot be used to support the Trinity doctrine for it is an interpretation that assumes the Trinity doctrine.  For a further explanation, see The Meanings of the Word THEOS.


The word “God” did not exist in the ancient Greek texts. We use the modern word “God” as the proper name for the One who exists without cause. 

The ancients did not have such a word.  They only had the word “god” (theos in Greek).  This word was used for a wide variety of beings, such as Moses, angels, Israel’s judges, appetite, those who receive the word of God, Satan and obviously also for the only true god. 

The ancient writers described Jesus as “our god” and the Father as “the only true god.”  The translators capitalize the “G,” when theos refers to Jesus, but that is an interpretation.  It is an application of the Trinity doctrine; not proof of it.  It must not be used to support the Trinity doctrine.

Articles in this series

Christology of the persecuted church (First 300 years)
 – Introduction
 – Polycarp
 – Justin Martyr 
 – Ignatius of Antioch
 – Irenaeus
 – Tertullian – work in progress

 – Origen – work in progress
 – Jesus is our god. – Current Article
Fourth Century (State Church)
 – Council of Nicaea – A.D. 325 
 – The Nicene Creed Interpreted 
 – Fourth Century Arianism 

 – What did Arianism believe in the fourth century?
 – Long Lines Creed – one of the creeds during the Arian period
 – Death of Arianism – Emperor Theodosius
Fifth Century
 – Fall of the Western Roman Empire
 – Why the Roman Empire fell 
 – The Fall of Rome proves Daniel as a true prophecy.
Middle Ages

 – The massacres of the Waldensians