This website does not reflect the views of any specific denomination or church. (See – About Author) The articles are categorized as follows:
- The Book of Daniel:
- Book of Revelation:
- Specific Topics
- Specific Books
If you are interested in joining a Zoom meeting in which I explain the articles on Daniel and Revelation, please forward me an email to .
Antichrist in Daniel
- Daniel 2 sets the stage for the identification of the Antichrist.
- Daniel 7 – Four beasts and eleven horns
- Daniel 8 – Three alternative views for the evil horn
- The animals of Daniel 7 and 8 reveal the Antichrist.
- Did the evil horn in Daniel 8 come out of a Greek horn?
- Daniel Eleven – Who is the “vile person?”
- Antiochus IV does not fit the profile.
Daniel 9 – Specific Concepts
- Introduction – Overview of the prophecy and major interpretations
- With which decree did the 490 years begin?
- The 490 years are an extension of God’s covenant with Israel.
- The 490 years ended when the Jews stoned Stephen.
- Who confirms what covenant with whom during the last 7 years?
- What is destroyed in verse 27?
- Does the prophecy list events in chronological sequence?
- When are the goals for the 490 years (verse 24) fulfilled?
- Translations differ with respect to WHEN Messiah will appear.
- Do all the prophecies in Daniel 9 describe the same crisis?
- Daniel’s prayer and the 490-year prophecy form a unit.
Daniel 9 – Interpretations
Daniel 9 – Related Articles
Is the Book of Daniel a forgery?
Revelation – General
- Why is the title of this website BY and not FROM Jesus Christ?
- Does Revelation describe events in chronological sequence?
- Every main part of Revelation begins in the temple in heaven.
- Is a consistently literal interpretation appropriate?
- God’s throne is the control center of the universe.
- The Return of Christ
- Does the book of Revelation present Jesus as God?
- Jesus is worshiped. Does that mean that He is God?
- Are both the Father and the Son worshipped in Rev 5:14?
- Is there really a hearing/seeing theme in Revelation?
- What do the numbers in the Book of Revelation mean?
The Seven Seals (4:1-8:1)
- The sealing of the 144000 (7:1-3)
- Who are the 144,000 “Sons of Israel” (Rev 7:4)?
- Who is the multitude before the throne of Revelation 7:9-17?
- Who are the woman and her child in Revelation 12?
- What are the stars of heaven in Revelation 12:4 – angels or people?
- WHEN did the war in heaven begin and WHEN did it end?
- HOW did Christ’s death win the victory in the war in heaven?
- They overcame Satan by the word of their testimony. (v11)
- Why did God not make an end of evil after the Cross?
- What is the beast that comes out of the sea? (Rev 13:1-2)
- Which of the beast’s seven heads has the fatal wound? (13:3-4)
- The beast of Revelation is the mainstream church.
- Supporting articles:
Seven Last Plagues (Revelation 15-16)
- Plagues 1-4
- Plague 5
- Plague 6
- Plague 7
- Purpose of the plagues
Babylon – the Mother of Harlots
Revelation – External Resources
Early Church History
(Key events which transformed the church from a sect of Judaism to an independent religion
- At first, the church was a Jewish sect, based in Jerusalem.
- The Christians fled from persecution to Judea and Samaria.
- A dispute arose – Must Gentile converts comply with the Law?
- Acts 15 caused a separation between Jew and Gentile.
- This history provides context to Paul’s theology.
- Dates for key events in the first few decades
Death, Eternal Life, and Eternal Torment
Eternal Life and Death
- Glenn Peoples’ article, Why I am an Annihilationist (rightreason.org).
- Rethinking Hell podcasts, including:
- What does the Bible say about the “Immortal Soul”?
How did Christ’s death atone for sin? What problem did His death solve?
- The meaning of the word “atonement”
- Overview of the theories of atonement
- My proposed theory of the atonement: Christ’s death proved that God judges rightly.
- Paul’s metaphors of salvation must not be literally interpreted.
- The article Why Jesus had to die attempts to explain the theory of the atonement to a Moslem, without Bible references.
- A brief overview of these articles
- In the Book of Revelation, why did Jesus have to die?
The Return of Christ
How Will He Return?
- When and how will Jesus return?
- Christ’s return in the Book of Revelation
- What did Jesus mean by “the End of the Age“?
- Little Apocalypse – Christ’s description of the end
- Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21 side-by-side
- The “kingdom of God” has a King, laws, and citizens. Its King is God. Jesus explained its laws.
When Will He Return?
These articles discuss the statements Jesus made indicating that He will return soon:
- “This generation will not pass away until …” (Matt 24:34)
- “You will not finish … until the Son of Man comes” (Matt 10:23).
- What does “the Kingdom of God” mean?
- “Some standing here shall not taste death until …“ (Matt 16:28).
- Jesus said and His disciples believed that He will return soon.
- Did He return “soon” through His Resurrection?
- Did He return “soon” through the destruction of Jerusalem (AD 70)?
- Why did Jesus not return soon?
The Seventh Day – blessed at creation, counted by Noah, made a Sabbath by Moses, corrupted by the Traditions, reformed by Christ, nut a non-issue for Paul.
In the Old Testament
Jesus’ Sabbath Healing Miracles
Jesus’ Sabbath Teachings
- The Sabbath was made for man. (Matt 12:1-8)
- Christ deliberately contravened the Sabbath.
- The real reason they killed Jesus.
- His miracles gave Him the opportunity to teach.
- What did Jesus teach about the Sabbath?
- Jesus taught a different Sabbath.
- Jesus replaced the Law of Moses with the Law of Christ.
The Sabbath in the New Testament
The Law of Moses
Does Galatians Contradict Jesus?
Paul wrote that the Law of Moses has been nullified and replaced by “the Law of Christ” (Gal 2:19; 6:2). However, Jesus said:
“Do not think that I came to abolish the Law …
not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law.”
The following articles explain this apparent contradiction:
- The Law of Christ (Gal 6:2) replaced the Law of Moses.
- The Old Testament foresaw that the Law of Moses will become obsolete.
- Jesus replaced the old commandments with much higher norms.
- The Law of Christ is what God’s Law always was and always will be.
- The final article summarizes the previous four.
- The purpose of this article by Thomas Lee is to rebut my article on the Law of Christ.
Sermon on the Mount
Gospel in Galatians
- The doers of the Law will be justified but NOT by the Works of the Law. (Rom 2:13)
- If people are justified through faith, why will they be judged by their deeds?
- Is justification a legal process or does it mean that the person is changed?
- Christ’s death removed our sin and thus enabled the grace of God.
Graham Maxwell explains his view of God’s use of the law from the letter to the Galatians.
The Origin of Evil
- Origin of evil – Evil began next to God’s throne.
- Why Satan thought he could win against God – A study of Job
- Rulers and Authorities are Supernatural beings that oppose Christ
- The Cross disarmed the rulers and authorities.
- War in Heaven – why and how do the angels war?
- Why evil continues after the cross
Is Jesus the Most High God?
Specific Bible Books
Specific Bible Passages
Origin and Pre-existence
Jesus is subordinate to God.
The Word Of God
The translation of John 1:1
Jesus is called God.
- The meanings of theos (translated as “God” or as “god”)
- John 1:18 – “the only begotten God”
- John 20:28 – Did Thomas say that Jesus is God?
- A study of the title theos (God) in John’s gospel.
- Romans 9:5 – Paul never refers to Jesus as God.
- Hebrews 1:8 refers to Jesus as theos.
- Overview of the verses that refer to Jesus as theos.
I do not agree with Dale Tuggy’s Christology but I do recommend his podcasts.
Trinity Doctrine – Historical Development
In this section, I also provide links to articles I posted on Stackexchange.
Christology of the persecuted church (first 3 centuries)
- Ignatius of Antioch – the Father is the only true God.
- Polycarp – The “Lord God Almighty” is the Father alone.
- Justin Martyr – The Son is subordinate to the Father.
- Irenaeus – The Father is the only true God.
- Why did these fathers refer to Jesus as “our god?”
- Sabellius – Was he the first Trinitarian?
- All pre-Nicene church fathers believed that Jesus is subordinate to the Father. See Dr. Tuggy’s podcasts 239-242.
The Nicene Creed of 325 AD
The Nicene Creed is the most famous and influential creed in the history of the church. The following articles are available:
- What was the dispute that led to the Council at Nicaea?
- Why does the creed use ousia and hypostasis as synonyms?
- Emperor Constantine controlled the Council of Nicaea.
- The emperor forced the Nicene Council to accept a minority view.
- What does the Nicene Creed really say?
- If the Son is begotten, how could He be eternal? (Stack)
- What “of the same substance” as the Father means (Stack)
- The meaning of “He is of another substance or essence“
- Kegan Chandler proposes that the term “homoousios” came from Egyptian religions.
- What was the dispute that led to the Council at Nicaea?
Post Nicene Developments
The end of Unitarianism
Authors on the Arian Controversy
These are extracts from the works of important researchers:
- RPC Hanson: A lecture on the Arian Controversy
- RPC Hanson: The conventional account of the Arian Controversy is a complete travesty.
- Edmund J. Fortman, The Triune God – Nicene Creed
- Millard J. Erickson, God in Three Persons
- William Boyd, Union of Church and State in the Roman Empire
Trinity Doctrine – General
Romans 9 and 11
- Romans 14:1-4 – The dispute was NOT over the Law of Moses.
- Koinós (unclean Rom 14:14) does not refer to unclean animals.
- The same dispute in Corinth over eating meat is idol worship
- Romans 14:5-6 – These days do not refer to the Sabbath.
- Romans 14:7-13 – God will judge people by their deeds.
- Romans 14:13-23 – Abstain from meat if a brother to stumble.
Galatians is important because it describes the very early power struggle between Paul and Judaising Jewish Christians.
Gal 1:10-12 – Paul received his gospel directly from Jesus Christ.
Gal 3:6-9 – Those who believe are sons of Abraham.
Chapter 4 – Work In Progress
Col 1:9-14 – The Father rescued us from the domain of darkness.
Col 1:20-22 – Through Christ, God brought an end to the war in heaven.
Col 2:11-14 – Canceling the certificate of debt is forgiving of sins.
- The Sabbath is heavily debated today but it was a not controversial issue in Paul’s day.
- Festivals, new moons, and sabbaths is a technical phrase for “all the appointed feasts of the house of Israel.”
- “Sabbaths” refers to the weekly Sabbath; not to the annual Sabbaths.
- Meros – The Colossians were criticized for HOW they kept these days.
- Building …
Colossians: Specific Topics:
For general discussions of theology, I recommend Graham Maxwell, who you will find on the Pineknoll website.