This website does not reflect the views of any specific denomination or church. (See – About Author) The articles are categorized as follows:

The Book of Daniel
– The Antichrist –

    • Daniel 2
      Daniel 2 divides world history into six successive ages..
    • Daniel 7
      Daniel 7 uses beasts and horns to symbolize world empires.
    • Evil Horn: Identity
      Daniel 8 explicitly identifies the two beasts but not the evil horn. This article lists three alternative interpretations.
    • Evil Horn: Origin
      A comparison of the animals of Daniel 7 and 8 identifies the fourth kingdom, from which the evil horn-king arises, as the Roman Empire.
    • Out of one of them
      What does it mean that the evil horn arises “out of one of them” (Dan 8:9)? Did it come out of a Greek horn?
    • Daniel 11
      Who is the “vile person?”
    • Antiochus IV
      Critics claim that the vile person is Antiochus but he does not fit the profile.

Daniel 9
– Summary –

    • Summary
      Summary of all Daniel 9-articles

Daniel 9
– Specific Concepts –

Daniel 9
– Interpretations –

    • Liberal-Critical
      Critical scholars claim that Daniel was written after the events it pretends to predict.
    • Dispensational
      A brief evaluation of the Dispensational interpretation of Daniel 9. (See more detail below.)
    • Consistent Symbolical
      In this, even the 490 years are symbolic and not literal.
    • Historic-Messianic
      The full 490 years are past history; fulfilled in the work that Jesus Christ and, after His death, the Holy Spirit did in Israel. (See more detail below.)
    • Pre-Wrath Dispensationalism
      The church will NOT be raptured but will suffer the end-time tribulation.
    • Church Fathers
      How did the early church fathers interpret Daniel 9?

Daniel 9
– Dispensational Interpretation –

Daniel 9
– Historical-Messianic Interpretation-

    • Introduction
      This is the traditional understanding of Daniel 9. In it, the 490 years are an extension of God’s covenant with Israel.
    • Decree
      The 490 years began with Artaxerxes’ first decree in 458/7 BC.
    • Messiah the Prince
      The Messiah who is cut off (Dan 9:26) is the Lord Jesus Christ.
    • Make firm a covenant
      It is Jesus who made ” a firm covenant with the many (in Israel)” (Dan 9:27).
    • Seven Last Years
      During the seven last years, Jesus confirmed God’s covenant with Israel; firstly, by His personal preaching and, secondly, after His death, by sending the Holy Spirit ONLY to Israel.
    • Jewish sacrificial system
      Jesus’ death “put a stop to sacrifice” (Dan 9:27).

Daniel 9
– Related Articles –

    • Jeremiah’s 70 years
      Where do we find the 70 years predicted by Jeremiah in history?
    • Nehemiah
      The book of Nehemiah provides context for Daniel’s prophecies.

The Book of Daniel
– Is it a forgery? –

    • Critical scholars
      Critical scholars claim that the prophecies of Daniel were written after the events it predicts.
    • Evidence that Daniel is true prophecy.
      This article provides evidence that Daniel was written BEFORE the events it predicts.
    • Summary
      Summary of the previous article
    • The Fall of Rome
      Rome fell in the way predicted in Daniel. This confirms Daniel as true prophecy.
    • Darius the Mede
      Does the absence of Darius in other historical sources prove that Daniel is fiction?
    • Dead Sea Scrolls
      The Dead Sea Scrolls also confirm Daniel as true prophecy.

– General Topics –

    • Revelation OF or BY Jesus?
      Should the title of the book be “Revelation OF” or “Revelation BY Jesus Christ?” In other words, is the book ABOUT Jesus Christ or FROM Him?
    • Chronological Sequence
      Does Revelation describe events in strict chronological sequence from beginning to end?
    • The temple is prominent.
      Every one of the five main parts of Revelation begins in the temple in heaven.
    • Literal Interpretation
      Is it valid to assume that everything in Revelation is literal unless it cannot be literal?
    • Christ’s Return
      An overview of the end-time events, as described in Revelation, leading up to Christ’s return
    • Hear/See Combinations
      In Revelation, John sometimes hears about something, but when he looks to see that thing, he sees something completely different.
    • Revelation’s strange numbers
      All numbers in Revelation are symbols. This article explains the meaning of the numbers 2, 4, 7, and 12.

– The Trinity –

    • Is Jesus God?
      Does the book of Revelation present Jesus as God?
    • Worship
      If Jesus is worshiped in Revelation, does that mean that He is God?
    • Is Jesus worshiped?
      Are both the Father and the Son worshiped in Revelation 5:14?

– The Seven Seals –

    • Summary
      Summary of all the articles on the seven seals
    • List
      List of articles with brief descriptions

Revelation 4

    • Verses 1-8
      A visual description of God’s throne room
    • The 24 elders
      The 24 elders in God’s throne room are people; not angels.
    • Worship
      Worship in God’s presence in Revelation 4:8-11 and 5; after Jesus has appeared in the throne room

Revelation 5

    • What event is this?
      Revelation 4 is a timeless description of God’s throne room. Revelation 5 describes what happened in heaven after Christ’s ascension.
    • The Sealed Book
      This is the Lamb’s Book of Life, which is the book of God’s judgments; indicating who will inherit eternal life.
    • Why Jesus had to die
      Why Jesus was not worthy to break the seals before His death and how did His death make Him worthy? (Rev 5:3. 5, 9)
    • Revelation 5 – Verse by Verse
      The first four verses describe the time before Christ, verses 5-6 describe His death and the rest of the chapter describes what happens in heaven after His ascension.

Revelation 6

    • First Seal
      The white horse is not the Antichrist. The color white, the stephanos crown, and its never-ending conquering identify it as the gospel.
    • Next three seals
      The four horsemen form a unit, meaning that the bloodshed, famine, and death in the next three horsemen are the consequence of the first (the gospel).
    • Fifth Seal
      Who or what are the souls under the altar? Would Christians cry for revenge?
    • Souls under the Altar
      Are these literal souls, literally crying out to God? If they are alive, why are they resting?
    • Sixth Seal
      In the sixth seal, the Son of Man separates the people from one another, as the shepherd separates the sheep from the goats.

Revelation 7

    • When is the sealing?
      Where does the sealing of the 144000 in Revelation 7:1-8 fit in the end-time events described later in Revelation?
    • What is the seal?
      God will make more power available to enable His last-day people to remain faithful during the catastrophic end-time events.
    • The Time of the End
      God’s people are sealed during the Time of the End, as described by Daniel, when the little open book comes down from heaven.
    • 144000 are sealed.
      Who are the 144,000 “Sons of Israel” (Rev 7:4)?
    • The Innumerable Multitude
      Who is the Great Multitude of Revelation 7:9-17 and when will they be gathered as described?

Revelation 8

    • Seventh Seal
      When the seventh seal is broken, God’s judgments are understood and God can make a final end of evil, causing silence in heaven for half an hour.
    • The seven trumpets
      Does the seventh seal include the seven trumpets?
    • The Delay
      God delays Christ’s return until all seven seals are broken. This article explains why Christ has not yet returned.

Revelation 12

    • The woman and her child
      The “male child” seems to be Christ, but who is His mother? Is she Eve or Mary or Israel or the church or some higher-level principle?
    • The stars
      “A great red dragon swept away a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth” (Rev 12:4). What are the stars?
    • War in heaven
      When did the war in heaven begin and when was Satan thrown out of heaven?
    • The Victory
      How did Michael defeat Satan? What are Satan’s weapons and what did Michael use to overcome Satan?
    • Their Testimony
      “They overcame Satan by the word of their testimony” (Rev 12:11). If Christ’s death defeated Satan, why would “their testimony” also be required? 
    • Why does evil continue?
      After peace was restored in heaven, the war on earth only intensified (Rev 12:9, 12). Why did God not make an end of evil immediately after the Cross?

Revelation 13

    • Beast from the Sea
      This beast is the Antichrist (Rev 13:1-2). It is its mark that people will be forced to accept in the end time. This article provides a preliminary identification.
    • Fatal Wound
      Revelation 17 describes the same fatal wound as in Revelation 13:3-4 and identifies the slain head as the sixth of the beast’s seven heads.
    • Identity of the Beast
      This article shows that the beast in Revelation is the same as the evil horn in Daniel. It then identifies the horn by comparing its description in Daniel 7 to history.

Seven Last Plagues
– Revelation 15-16 –

      • Introduction
        What must happen before the plagues will start to fall?

First Four Plagues

      • The first four form a unit.
        Revelation has seven seals, seven trumpets, and seven plagues. The first four of each series should be interpreted as a unit; not individually.
      • Mark of the Beast
        The plagues show that the people with the mark of the beast are so deeply entrenched in Satan’s ways that they are unable to repent, even when faced with clear evidence that they are wrong.

Fifth Plague

      • Throne of the Beast
        The beast received its throne (authority) from the Roman Empire (Rev 13:2). The beast is the mainstream church of today, namely the church that has developed from the official religion of the Roman Empire. 
      • Darkness
        It is the loud cry (Rev 18:2) that causes the darkness on the throne of the beast. That cry convinces the followers of the beast that the light from their religious system is actually spiritual darkness.
      • The Church of the Roman Empire
        The Roman Empire chose a specific subset of Christianity as the official religion of the Empire and transformed it into its own image. With the power of the Empire behind it, that religion developed into the ‘church’ of the Middle Ages and will remain the mainstream ‘church’ until it is destroyed by the seven last plagues.

Sixth Plague

      • The Euphrates dries up.
        The Euphrates symbolizes the people under control of the beast.
      • Kings from the East
        There are two groups of kings in this plague. Since the kings of the whole world war against God, the kings from the east are the kings of God’s army.
      • Armageddon
        Armageddon is not a place. It is an event; the Day of the Lord; the Day of Judgment. The people will not gather at a specific place; spirits of demons will unite the world against God.
      • Rapture
        Jesus is “coming like a thief” (Rev 16:15). Does this support a secret rapture?
      • Why the Euphrates must dry up
        Why must the Euphrates dry up before the kings from the east may come? (Rev 16:12)
      • Summary
        Overview of the articles on the sixth plague

Seventh Plague

      • Seventh Plague
        This final plague continues in Revelation 19 and ends with Christ’s return, the destruction of the beast and the extermination of the people with the mark of the beast.

Purpose of the Plagues

      • To Reveal
        The purpose is not to save or to punish but to show that the people with the mark of the beast, who appear to be Christians, are hardened beyond repentance.
      • To validate God judgments
        The ultimate purpose is to show that God judges perfectly, but would that be necessary?

Revelation’s Beasts

    • The seven-headed beasts identified
      Revelation has three beasts with seven heads and ten horns each. What are they and how are they related?
    • Beasts are heads.
      “Here is the mind which has wisdom. The seven heads are …” (Rev 17:9). The seven heads are the seven phases of the beast-power. Each beast is one of the phases and, therefore, one of the seven heads.
    • The seven heads identified
      What are the seven heads of the beast?

Babylon – the Mother of Harlots

    • General characteristics
      She is not an ordinary world ruler. She corrupts the people, unites the world against God, and is worldwide and timeless.
    • Babylon and the Beast
      This article explains the relationship between the harlot Babylon and the beast of Revelation 13.
    • False Christianity
      Babylon exists everywhere and for all human history, but false Christianity has adopted the Babylonian spirit.
    • Babylon’s merchants
      The angel said that Babylon’s “merchants were the great men of the earth” (Rev 18:23). Who are they?
    • A Literal City?
      Literal interpreters propose that ancient Babylon will be rebuilt on the literal Euphrates River, to become the capital of the world.
    • The Papacy?
      Based on a comparison of the harlot of Revelation and the church’s history, some view the Papacy as the Babylon, the great.
    • Summary
      Overview of the articles on Babylon

Revelation 17

    • Revelation 17:1-3
      The harlot sitting on the scarlet beast – verse-by-verse
    • Revelation 17:4-6
      Babylon the great, the mother of harlots – verse-by-verse
    • The weak head
      According to Revelation 17:8, 10-11, while the beast “is not,” the sixth head “is.” In other words, the sixth phase of the beast is weak. When will that be?

Revelation – External Resources

Early Church History

(Key events which transformed the church from a sect of Judaism to an independent religion

      • Jerusalem Phase
        After receiving the Holy Spirit, the church grew quickly, but it a remained a Jewish sect, based in Jerusalem.
      • Judea and Samaria phase
        When the 490 years of Daniel 9 came to an end, God dispersed the church to Judea and Samaria through persecution.
      • Gentile Dispute Phase
        When the first Gentiles became Christians, a dispute arose whether they must observe the Law of Moses.
      • Separation between Jew and Gentile
        The Acts 15 church council caused separation between Jewish and Gentile Christians when it decided that Gentiles are not subject to the Law while Jewish Christians continued in the Law.
      • Theological Implications
        This history explains the disputes in Paul’s letters over justification, unity of Jew and Gentile, the Law of Moses, and the Sabbath.
      • Chronology
        Dates for key events in the first few decades

The Origin of Evil

      • Origin of evil
        God creates intelligent beings with the freedom to choose between good and evil. Evil arose from that freedom.
      • Why Satan thought he could win
        A study of the book of Job
      • Rulers and Authorities
        Paul and also Peter refer to them. They are supernatural beings that oppose Christ.
      • Disarmed
        How did the Cross disarm the supernatural rulers and authorities? (Col 2:15)

– The solution for evil –


      • Judgment by Deeds
        God judges all people by their deeds and justifies some by grace.
      • Justification
        Justification changes the person; it is not a mere legal process irrespective of whether he or she is a changed person.

The Law of Moses

      1. The Law of Christ replaced the Law of Moses.
        Paul that God’s people are no longer subject to the Law of Moses and introduced the concept of “the Law of Christ.”
      2. The Old Testament foresaw that the Law of Moses would fall away.
        The Law was added more than 400 years after God made His covenant with Abraham. Therefore, the Law was temporary.
      3. Christ’s Higher Standards
        Jesus did not do away with the moral commandments but replaced it with higher standards.
      4. The Law of Christ
        The Law of Christ is God’s law as it always existed and always will exist.
      5. Summary of the previous four articles

Sermon on the Mount

      1. How Jesus fulfilled the Law and the Prophets
        Discussion of Matthew 5:17. What does “fulfill” mean and what are the Law and the Prophets?
      2. Objections to the previous article
        What is “the Law” and what did Jesus and the Acts 15 Church Council say about it?
      3. Did the Acts 15 Church Council contradict Jesus?
        Since Jesus said nothing shall pass from the Law (Matt 5:19), why did the Acts 15 Church Council grant Gentiles freedom from the Law?
      4. Sermon on the Mount
        Jesus taught people do not have immortality and that God judges people by their deeds.

Death, Eternal Life, and Eternal Torment

Eternal Torment

      • Annihilate
        God will annihilate the lost. They will not suffer eternal torment.
      • The Third Angel’s Warning
        The smoke of their torment will symbolically rise forever (Rev 14:9-11).
      • The Lake of Fire
        The lake of fire is the second death (Rev 20:10) and symbolizes annihilation.
      • Eternal Torment
        The evidence for eternal torment actually supports annihilation.
      • Summary
        Summary of the articles on eternal torment
      • Eternal Life
        Only God’s people will receive eternal life and they will receive it only when Christ returns.
      • Immortal Souls
        Do people have immortal souls? Discussion of 1 Corinthians 15
      • Resurrection Body
        With what kind of body will the dead be resurrected?

External Resources

The Return of Christ

How Will He Return?

When Will He Return?

These articles discuss the statements Jesus made indicating that He will return soon:

Is Jesus the Most High God?

Specific Bible Books

Specific Bible Passages

Origin and Pre-existence

Jesus is subordinate to God.

The Word of God

The translation of John 1:1

Jesus is called God.

Other Resources

I do not agree with Dale Tuggy’s Christology but I do recommend his podcasts.

Trinity Doctrine – History of the Development

The emphasis in this section is the Fourth Century Arian Controversy but it includes articles on the views of the ante-Nicene church fathers and the events of the fifth and sixth centuries:

The Theology of the Apologists (first 3 centuries)


The Nicene Creed (AD 325)

The Nicene Creed is the most famous and influential creed in the history of the church:

Fourth-Century ‘Arianism’

The End of Roman ‘Arianism’

Authors on the Arian Controversy

(Extracts from important scholars)

Later Developments

Trinity Doctrine – General

External Resources

The Sabbath 

The Seventh Day – blessed at creation, counted by Noah, made a Sabbath by Moses, corrupted by the Traditions, reformed by Christ, nut a non-issue for Paul.

In the Old Testament

Jesus’ Sabbath Healing Miracles

Jesus’ Sabbath Teachings

The Sabbath in the New Testament


Romans 9 and 11


Romans 14


Galatians is important because it describes the very early power struggle between Paul and Judaising Jewish Christians.

Overview of Galatians Chapters 1 to 3

Chapter 4 – Work In Progress

Transversal Topics

Galatians represents Paul’s arguments before the Jerusalem Church Council in Acts 15.

The Galatians were at risk of losing their eternal inheritance. What exactly did they do wrong?


Col 1:1-8We thank God for the hope laid up for us in heaven.

Col 1:9-14The Father rescued us from the domain of darkness.

Col 1:15-19The Colossian deception claimed to have supernatural knowledge, but all knowledge is found in Christ.

War in HeavenCol 1:20-22Through Christ, God brought an end to the war in heaven.

Col 1:23-28The mystery which has been hidden, namely that Gentiles are fellow members of the body

Col 2:1-4Deceivers merged the gospel with mystery religions, arguing that Christ is not the only source of knowledge.

Col 2:5-8The Colossian deception was man-made pagan philosophy; not Old Testament law..

Col 2:9-10The deception claimed that people need more than Christ to become complete.

Col 2:11Circumcision without hands is a heart circumcised by the Spirit. It loves God and hates sin.

Col 2:11-14 Canceling the certificate of debt is forgiving of sins.

Col 2:14

Col 2:15What rulers and authorities did God disarm through Christ?

Col 2:16

Colossians: Specific Topics:


1) Jesus became High Priest in the tabernacle in heaven through His suffering.

2) Jesus is a better High Priest because the Levitical priesthood was unable to do away with sin.

3) Jesus appears before God for us. He guarantees the promise which God made: “Their lawless deeds I will remember no more.

4) Draw near with confidence to the throne of grace – an analysis of the two bookends (4:14-16 and 10:22-24).

5) If Christians go “on sinning willfully”, then there only remains “the fury of a fire which will consume” (10:27).

6) Hebrews 1:1-3: Christ’s message is superior to that of the Old Testament prophets because He is superior to them.

Other Topics

Christmas: Its Meaning and Origin – God’s willingness to send His Son reveals much about Him, but 25 December was derived from the pagan feast of the birthday of the Invincible Sun.

Author – I have no formal Bible training and I am not part of any church group.

For general discussions of theology, I recommend Graham Maxwell, who you will find on the Pineknoll website.