This website does not reflect the views of any specific denomination or church. (See – About Author) The articles are categorized as follows:

Antichrist in Daniel

Daniel 9

Daniel 9 – Specific Concepts

Daniel 9 – Interpretations

Daniel 9 – Related Articles

Is the Book of Daniel a forgery?

Revelation – General

The Seven Seals (4:1-8:1)

Revelation 4

Revelation 5

Revelation 6

Revelation 7

Revelation 8

Revelation 12

Revelation 13

Seven Last Plagues (Revelation 15-16)

Revelation 17

Babylon – the Mother of Harlots

Revelation’s Beasts

Revelation – External Resources

Early Church History

(Key events which transformed the church from a sect of Judaism to an independent religion

Death, Eternal Life, and Eternal Torment

Eternal Torment

Eternal Life and Death

External Resources


How did Christ’s death atone for sin? What problem did His death solve?

Related Articles

Recommended External Resources (mp3s)


We are not “justified by the works of the Law” but by grace through faith. However, God judges our deeds.

Justify” is one of many metaphors and we should not interpret metaphors literally.

Through faith in Christ” consists of two concepts: Faith in God and a mysterious unity between Christ and the believer.

Live by” is an Old Testament expression that is equivalent to the New Testament concept of justify.

The Return of Christ

How Will He Return?

When Will He Return?

These articles discuss the statements Jesus made indicating that He will return soon:

The Sabbath 

The Seventh Day – blessed at creation, counted by Noah, made a Sabbath by Moses, corrupted by the Traditions, reformed by Christ, nut a non-issue for Paul.

In the Old Testament

Jesus’ Sabbath Healing Miracles

Jesus’ Sabbath Teachings

The Sabbath in the New Testament

The Law of Moses

Does Galatians Contradict Jesus?

Paul wrote that the Law of Moses has been nullified and replaced by “the Law of Christ” (Gal 2:19; 6:2). However, Jesus said:

Do not think that I came to abolish the Law …
not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law

The following articles explain this apparent contradiction:

      1. The Law of Christ (Gal 6:2) replaced the Law of Moses.
      2. The Old Testament foresaw that the Law of Moses will become obsolete.
      3. Jesus replaced the old commandments with much higher norms.
      4. The Law of Christ is what God’s Law always was and always will be.
      5. The final article summarizes the previous four.
      6. The purpose of this article by Thomas Lee is to rebut my article on the Law of Christ

Sermon on the Mount

Gospel in Galatians

      1. The doers of the Law will be justified but NOT by the Works of the Law. (Rom 2:13)
      2. If people are justified through faith, why will they be judged by their deeds?
      3. Is justification a legal process or does it mean that the person is changed?
      4. Christ’s death removed our sin and thus enabled the grace of God.

External Resources

Graham Maxwell explains his view of God’s use of the law from the letter to the Galatians.

The Origin of Evil

Is Jesus the Most High God?

Specific Bible Books

Specific Bible Passages

Origin and Pre-existence

Jesus is subordinate to God.

The Word of God

The translation of John 1:1

Jesus is called God.

Other Resources

I do not agree with Dale Tuggy’s Christology but I do recommend his podcasts.

History of the Development of the Trinity Doctrine

In this section, I also provide links to articles I posted on Stackexchange.

Christology of the persecuted church (first 3 centuries)


The Nicene Creed of 325 AD

The Nicene Creed is the most famous and influential creed in the history of the church. The following articles are available:

Post Nicene Developments

The end of Unitarianism

Authors on the Arian Controversy

These are extracts from the works of important researchers:

Later Developments

Trinity Doctrine – General


Romans 9 and 11


Romans 14


Galatians is important because it describes the very early power struggle between Paul and Judaising Jewish Christians.

Gal 1:1-5According to the will of our God and Father, Jesus gave Himself to rescue us from this present evil age.

Gal 1:6-9The Galatians accepted a dangerously distorted gospel.

Gal 1:10-12Paul received his gospel directly from Jesus Christ.

Gal 1:13-14The emphasis on outward behavior in Traditions of the Elders shifts the focus away from God to self.

Gal 1:15-24Short review of Paul’s history & Overview of Galatians 1.

Gal 2:1-10Paul took an uncircumcised Gentile Christian to the church leaders in Jerusalem. The church leaders accepted him.

Gal 2:11-14God instructed Peter to accept Gentiles without circumcision but he yielded to the Circumcision Party.

Gal 2:15-16The Acts 15 Church Council confirmed that Gentile Christians do not have to convert to Judaism.

Gal 2:17-18Paul’s teachings destroyed the law; the dividing wall between Jewish and Gentile Christians.

Gal 2:19-20Christians are not subject to the Law of Moses but to the Law of Christ.

Gal 2:21To attempt to earn “righteousness” through the Law is to nullify “the grace of God.”

Overview Galatians 1 & 2

Gal 3:1-5The Galatians received the Spirit without the Law but want to continue in their own power.

Gal 3:6-9Those who believe are sons of Abraham.

Gal 3:10-14No one is justified by the Law because no one is able to comply with the law.

Gal 3:15-18Jesus Christ is Abraham’s true Seed. As such, He inherited the Covenant promises.

Gal 3:19-25When Christ came, He became our Tutor. We no longer need the Law.

Gal 3:26-29There is no need to circumcise Gentile Christians because Israel no longer has a separate role in God’s plan.

Overview of Galatians Chapters 1 to 3

Chapter 4 – Work In Progress

Transversal Topics

Galatians represents Paul’s arguments before the Jerusalem Church Council in Acts 15.

The Galatians were at risk of losing their eternal inheritance. What exactly did they do wrong?


Col 1:1-8We thank God for the hope laid up for us in heaven.

Col 1:9-14The Father rescued us from the domain of darkness.

Col 1:15-19The Colossian deception claimed to have supernatural knowledge, but all knowledge is found in Christ.

War in HeavenCol 1:20-22Through Christ, God brought an end to the war in heaven.

Col 1:23-28The mystery which has been hidden, namely that Gentiles are fellow members of the body

Col 2:1-4Deceivers merged the gospel with mystery religions, arguing that Christ is not the only source of knowledge.

Col 2:5-8The Colossian deception was man-made pagan philosophy; not Old Testament law..

Col 2:9-10The deception claimed that people need more than Christ to become complete.

Col 2:11Circumcision without hands is a heart circumcised by the Spirit. It loves God and hates sin.

Col 2:11-14 Canceling the certificate of debt is forgiving of sins.

Col 2:14

Col 2:15What rulers and authorities did God disarm through Christ?

Col 2:16

Colossians: Specific Topics:


1) Jesus became High Priest in the tabernacle in heaven through His suffering.

2) Jesus is a better High Priest because the Levitical priesthood was unable to do away with sin.

3) Jesus appears before God for us. He guarantees the promise which God made: Their lawless deeds I will remember no more.

4) Draw near with confidence to the throne of grace – an analysis of the two bookends (4:14-16 and 10:22-24).

5) If Christians go “on sinning willfully”, then there only remains “the fury of a fire which will consume” (10:27).

6) Hebrews 1:1-3: Christ’s message is superior to that of the Old Testament prophets because He is superior to them.

Other Topics

Christmas: Its Meaning and Origin – God’s willingness to send His Son reveals much about Him, but 25 December was derived from the pagan feast of the birthday of the Invincible Sun.

Author – I have no formal Bible training and I am not part of any church group.

For general discussions of theology, I recommend Graham Maxwell, who you will find on the Pineknoll website.