Is Jesus God? Or is He a created being? – A study of Colossians

ColossiansThis article discusses the view of Jesus in the letter to the Colossians; is Jesus God? Is He equal to the Father? Or is He a created being?

Colossians is particularly relevant for this purpose because it contains perhaps the highest view of Christ of all New Testament letters. Colossians 1:15-19, in particular, is Paul’s fullest explanation of the Person of Christ.

This is the second article on Jesus in Colossians. The main conclusions in the first article were that in Colossians:

Jesus Christ is never called God. On the contrary, Christ Jesus is distinct from God (e.g. Col 1:1, 15; 2:12; 3:1).

Father” is another title for God (e.g. Col 1:1-3, 17) and the title “the Lord” refers only to Jesus (e.g. Col 1:6, 17); never to God.

God the Father is our Savior (e.g., Col 1:12-13; 2:13-14).

God also reconciled the things in heaven to Himself through Christ (e.g., Col 1:19-20; 2:15; cf. Heb 2:14).  

Christ has a passive role.

God is the active Force in creation (Col 1:16) and everything else. Colossians does not mention anything which Jesus did.

Worship JesusHowever, God does everything through His Son (Col 1:14, 16, 20). Therefore, we also thank and praise God “through” His Son (Col 3:17; cf. Phil 2:10-11; John 5:23).

Unless otherwise indicated, all quotations are from the New American Standard Bible.

Summary of this article

From Colossians, this article shows that:

God created all things “through” Christ (Col 1:16).

In Him, all things hold together (Col 1:17; Heb 1:3).

There never was a time that He did not exist (Col 1:17). Even time itself was created through Him (Col 1:16).

Jesus, seated at the right hand of God, rules over the entire universe, subject to God only (Col 3:1; cf. 1:16, 18; 2:10). God created the whole universe for him (Col 1:16).

He is the visible likeness of the invisible God (Col 1:15). In Him, we can see what God is like.

This article also discusses two other very important verses:

The Fullness of Deity dwells in Him (Col 2:9).

For in Him all the fullness of Deity
dwells in bodily form
” (Col 2:9).

Many people want this verse to say that Christ is fully God. However:

(1) Since the letter to the Colossians consistently teaches that Jesus is distinct from and subordinate to God, it would be wrong to interpret this verse in that way.

(2) According to Colossians 1:19, Christ RECEIVED “all the fullness” from God, which means that He is not God, for God is the uncaused Cause of all things.

(3) Human beings may also “be filled up to all the fullness of God” (Eph 3:19).

(4) If Jesus was God, why did Paul not say so? Why make statements that indicate that Jesus is as close as possible to God as a being in this universe can be without being God Himself?

God does not have a body because He is that which exists outside our realm of space, time, and matter. Christ has a body (cf. Col 1:15). According to Colossians 2:9, “the fullness of the Deity lives” in Christ’s body (Col 2:9). Everything that God is, that can live in a being of this universe, lives in Christ. Therefore, He has “equality with God (Phil 2:6).

The Firstborn of all creation (Col 1:15)

Initially, the word translated as “firstborn” literally meant the one born first. But over time, it became a designation of preeminence (e.g., Psa 89:20–27; Jer 31:9).

The sentence, that contains the word “firstborn,” may be summarized as follows:

His beloved Son … is … the firstborn of all creation,
for by
(or “in”) Him all things were created” (Col 1:13-16).

The word “for” means that Christ is “the firstborn of all creation” BECAUSE God created all things through Him. This may be understood as that:

(1) Because God created all things through Him,
He was the first being to exist in “all creation.” OR

(2) Because God created all things through Him,
Christ is preeminent over “all creation.

In my view, both statements are true. Perhaps the more controversial aspect of the phrase “the firstborn of all creation” is “of all creation,” for it seems to indicate that Jesus is part of creation and therefore a created being. However, Christ is “the firstborn” and the Only Begotten Son of God (Col 1:18; 3:16, 18). If He was born, He was not created.

Is Jesus God?

To answer this question, we first have to define the title “God:”

The Greek word translated as “God” in the Bible is theos. This was the common word for the Greek gods, who were merely immortal humans with superpowers. Using that definition for “God,” Christ is most certainly “God,” for Colossians and the Bible have an extremely high view of Christ.

To distinguish the god of the Bible from the pagan gods, the Bible sometimes refers to the “only God” (John 5:44; 1 Tim 1:17; Jude 1:25) or the “only true God” (John 17:3) or “the Most High” (Luke 1:35). Jesus is always presented as distinct from and subordinate to the “only true God.” (See the article – Jesus is not the same Person as God.) Therefore, if we reserve the title “God” for “the Most High,” then Jesus is not God.

– END OF SUMMARY –


God created all things “through” Him.

For by (en = in) Him (Christ) all things were created,
both in (en = in) the heavens and on earth …
all things have been created
through Him and for Him
.” (Col 1:16)

To say that all things were created “by Him” sounds as if Christ played an active role in creation. However, the Greek word is “en” and generally means “in.” Of the 2801 times that the word “en” appears in the New Testament, it is translated as “in” 1902 times (Strong’s Greek: 1722 ἐν  (en)). To translate “en” as “in” would be consistent with the word “through” later in the same verse in the phrase, “all things have been created through Him.” To say that all things were created “in” or “through” Christ assigns a passive role to the Son: It is God who created.

In Him, all things hold together.

Colossians 1:17 reads:

In Him all things hold together” (NASB).

In union with him all things have their proper place” (Good News)

He holds all creation together” (New Living).

This is a most profound concept. Hebrews 1:3 similarly says, “He … upholds all things by the word of His power.” Since God created all things “through” Jesus, it is proposed that God upholds all creation “through” Him. As stated in the previous article, in Colossians, the Father is the active Force in creation and salvation, while Jesus is described as having a passive role.

He always existed.

He is before all things” (Col 1:17).

He himself existed before anything else did
(Same verse – International Standard Version)

Therefore, there never was a time that He did not exist. Since all things were created “through” Him (Col 1:16), God even created time through His Son.

Jesus rules over the entire universe.

The Father's Right HandHe is “seated at the right hand of God” (Col 3:1). As discussed in the previous article, this statement means that He is distinct from God and subordinate to God. But it also means that He occupies the highest position in all the universe; second only to God. Other statements indicating His extremely high position are:

God created the whole universe … for him.
(Col 1:16 – Good News Translation).

He … will … have first place in everything” (Col 1:18).

He is the head over all rule and authority” (Col 2:10)

He is the visible likeness of the invisible God.

Colossians 1:15 reads as follows:

He is the image of the invisible God” (NASB).

Christ is exactly like God, who cannot be seen
(Contemporary English Version).

Christ is the visible likeness of the invisible God
(Good News Translation).

This statement confirms the distinction between God and Christ: While God is invisible, Jesus can be seen. Nevertheless, in Him, we can see what God is like. When Philip asked, “Lord, show us the Father,” He answered:

He who has seen Me has seen the Father” (John 14:9).

The Fullness of Deity dwells in Him.

The Essence of Jesus Christ

There are two verses in Colossians that refer to “the fullness” that dwells in His Son:

It was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him” (Col 1:19).

For in Him all the fullness of Deity
dwells in bodily form
” (Col 2:9).

Both verses refer to “the fullness” but, while Colossians 1:19 refers to “all the fullness,” in Colossians 2:9, it is “the fullness of Deity.” Nevertheless, it is assumed that these verses refer to the same “fullness.

ColossiansThe word translated “diety” is theotés, which is derived from the word theos (god). Compare different translations of Colossians 2:9:

In Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form” (NIV).

In Him all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily form” (NASB).

In Christ lives all the fullness of God in a human body
(New Living Translation; Col 2:9).

God lives fully in Christ
(Contemporary English Version; Col 2:9).

Many people want this verse to say that Christ is God. However:

(1) Jesus is distinct from God.

Since Colossians consistently teach that Jesus is distinct from and subordinate to God, it would be wrong to interpret this verse in this way.

(2) God is the uncaused Cause.

While the Trinity doctrine teaches that the Son is co-equal to the Father, from Colossians 1:19 we learn that the Father caused “all the fullness to dwell in Him.” In other words, Christ received “all the fullness,” which means that He is not God, for God is the uncaused Cause of all things. For example, the Good News Translation of Colossians 2:9 reads as follows:

The full content of divine nature lives in Christ,
in his humanity.

This goes too far and is not illogical. The nature of God includes that He exists without cause and that He Himself is the cause of everything else that exists. Since it was God who caused “all the fullness to dwell in Him (Christ)” (Col 1:19), the Son as a caused being; not the ultimate uncaused Cause of all things. A being cannot become the uncaused Cause of all things. A being is either caused or uncaused.

Since Christ received “all the fullness,” He is subordinate to the One who gave Him that fullness. His subordination to God is also seen in many other statements, such as:

He is “seated at the right hand of God” (Col 3:1).

He is the visible likeness of the invisible God (Col 1:15).

The fact that He is the “Son” (Col 1:13) already implies that He is subordinate to the Father.

The Father is the Active Force both in creation and salvation, while His Son is the Means through which the Father works. See Jesus in Colossians; Introduction.

Human beings may also “be filled up to all the fullness of God” (Eph 3:19).

(4) Why did Paul not write that Jesus is God?

If Jesus was God, why did Paul not say so? Why make statements, such as that Christ is the image of God and that the fullness of deity lives in Christ, that indicate that Jesus is as close as possible to God as a being in this universe can be without being God Himself?

The fullness of God in a body

It is a pity that I have to combat the false interpretations of these verses because the statement that, “in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form” (NIV; Col 2:9), is really profound.

God does not have a physical body because He is that which exists outside our realm of space, time, and matter. Christ has a body, for He “is the (visible) image of the invisible God” (Col 1:15). According to Colossians 2:9, “the fullness of the Deity livesin Christ’s visible body (Col 2:9). Everything that God is, that can live in a being of this universe, lives in Christ. Therefore, He has “equality with God (Phil 2:6) and we give “thanks through Him to God the Father” (Col 3:17).

The Firstborn of all creation

FirstbornThe word translated as “firstborn” in Colossians 1:15 (prōtotokos) initially literally meant the one born first. But over time, it became a designation of preeminence (e.g., Gen 49:3–4; Exo 4:22). For example, David, the youngest son of Jesse, was called “firstborn” (Psalm 89:20–27). As another example, Manasseh was born first, but Ephraim, his younger brother, was “firstborn” due to the positions their grandfather Jacob gave the boys (Gen 48:13–20, Jer 31:9).

The sentence in which the word “firstborn” appears in Colossians 1:15 may be summarized as follows:

His beloved Son … is … the firstborn of all creation,
for by
(or “in”) Him all things were created” (Col 1:13-16).

The word “for” means that Christ is “the firstborn of all creation” BECAUSE God created all things through Him.  This can be understood in at least two ways:

(1) Interpreting “firstborn” literally, it would mean that, because God created all things through Him, He was the first being to exist in all creation.

(2) Interpreting “firstborn” literally, it would mean that, because God created all things through Him, Christ is preeminent over “all creation.

Both statements are true and both interpretations find support in the immediate context. For example:

(1) Three verses later, Jesus is also described as “the firstborn from the dead” (Col 1:18; cf. Rev 1:5). In this verse, because Jesus was not the first to be raised from death, that Jesus is “the firstborn from the dead” probably means that He is preeminent over those resurrected from death.

(Some argue that other people, who were raised from death, such as Lazarus, died again, but Jesus was the first to be literally raised to ETERNAL LIFE. But I think Jesus was also not even the first to be resurrected to eternal life (cf. Jude 1:9; Luke 9:30; Luke 27:52).)

If “the firstborn from the dead” means that Christ is preeminent over those resurrected from death, then “the firstborn of all creation” may similarly mean that He is the preeminent Person in the universe. Most non-literal translations render the phrase in that way:

The firstborn over all creation” (NIV);

Superior to all created things
(Good News Translation).

Preeminent over all creation
(New Heart English Bible).

(2) Both the facts that “by Him all things were created” (Col 1:16) and “He is before all things” (Col 1:17) imply references to the Beginning. This may imply that “the firstborn of all creation” also refers to the Beginning. In that case, it would mean that Jesus literally was the first to exist.

In my view, Christ is both the most important Person in the universe and the first to exist.

Has Jesus been created?

Perhaps the more controversial aspect of the phrase “the firstborn of all creation” is “of all creation,” for it seems to indicate that Jesus is part of creation and therefore a created being. However:

(1) Since God created “all things” through Him and for Him (Col 1:16), and since God could not create the Son through the Son. the Son is not part of the “all things” which God created through Him.  

(2) As explained above, in this context, the word “firstborn” quite possibly indicates preeminence. Then “the firstborn of all creation” means ‘pre-eminent over all created things’, similar to the statement that Christ is “the head over all rule and authority” (Col 2:10) – rather than that He is part of creation.

(3) Jesus is “the firstborn” and the Only Begotten Son of God (Col 1:18; 3:16, 18). If He was “begotten” (or born), He was not created. He was not born like a human child. How God brought forth His Son we do not understand, for it is hidden in the infinity of God. But it does seem to be something different from being created. For a further discussion, see – Only Begotten.

Is Jesus God?

Jesus Christ

Actually, this is not a good question, for there is no word in the original text of the Bible that has exactly the same meaning as the modern word “God.” Therefore, to answer this question, we first have to define the title “God:”

The definition of the Greek word theos

The Greek word translated as “God” in the Bible is theos. This was the common word for the Greek gods, who were mere humans with superpowers. Using that definition for “God,” Christ is most certainly “God,” for Colossians and the Bible have an extremely high view of Christ. For example:

    • God created all things through Jesus (Col 1:15).
    • Jesus Christ upholds all things by the word of His power (Col 1:17; Heb 1:3).
    • The fullness of deity dwells in Him (Col 2:9).
    • He is the visible likeness of the invisible God (Col 1:15).
    • He rules over all the entire universe, subject only to God (Col 3:1).
    • It is God’s will that we worship Him (Phil 2:10-11).
    • He existed before all things, which means that He always existed, for even time was created through Him.

However, if we define the modern word “God” as equivalent to the Greek word theos, the problem would be that we will have two Gods. This is exactly for this reason that the church, over the centuries, developed the Trinity doctrine in which the Father and the Son are two Persons in one Being.

The definition of the modern word “God”

To distinguish the god of the Bible from the pagan gods, the Bible sometimes refers to the “only God” (John 5:44; 1 Tim 1:17; Jude 1:25) or the “only true God” (John 17:3) or “the Most High” (e.g., Acts 7:48).

For example, the angel said to Mary that Jesus will be called the Son of “the Most High” (Luke 1:35). When the Bible makes statements such as that God is invisible (1 Tim 1:17), or that Jesus sits at the right hand of God (Col 3:1), or that He is the image of the invisible God (Col 1:15), or “there is one God and one mediator between God and mankind, the man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim 2:5), then the title “God” refers to the Most High; the One who exists without cause.

Jesus is always presented as distinct from and subordinate to the “only true God.” (See the article – Jesus is not the same Person as God.) Therefore, if we reserve the title “God” for “the Most High,” then Jesus is not God.

We should, therefore, use the Bible’s definition of the title “God,” which would exclude Jesus.

Available Articles – Christology

Summary Articles

Specific Bible Books

Specific Bible Passages

The origin of the Son

Christ is subordinate to God.

Christ is equal with God.

Jesus is called God.

      • Overview – Overview of the verses that refer to Jesus as theos.
      • Theos – The meaning of theos – the word translated “God.”
      • John 1:18 – The original text of this verse is in dispute.
      • John 20:28 – Did Thomas say that Jesus is God?
      • John’s gospel – Discussion of theos in this gospel.
      • Romans 9:5 – The translation depends on punctuation.
      • Hebrews 1:8 – The next verse says that God is His theos.

The translation of John 1:1

Other

If you are interested in Christology, I recommend Dale Tuggy’s podcasts, even though he understands Christ vastly different from me.

Other Articles Series

Daniel

Revelation

Other Key Articles

For general discussions of theology, I recommend Graham Maxwell, who you will find on the Pineknoll website.

Colossian 2:16; Annual Sabbaths or Weekly?

EXTRACT: The “Sabbath” in Colossians 2:16 does not refer to the annual Sabbaths, but to the weekly Sabbath, because the phrase “festivals, new moons, or Sabbaths”:

► Implies an annual, monthly, and weekly sequence;
► Includes all of Israel’s holy days, also the weekly Sabbath.
► Already includes the annual Sabbaths in the “festivals”.

Different Laws

The weekly and annual Sabbaths are required by different Laws:

Weekly Sabbath

The weekly Sabbath is required by the Ten Commandments, which God wrote with His own His finger on both sides of two stone tablets (Exo 31:18; Deut 9:10; Exo 32:15-16; Deut 4:13). These stone tablets were put inside the Ark of the Covenant (Deut 10:5), signifying that the Ten Commandments were at the center of the covenant.

Annual Sabbaths

The instructions for annual Sabbaths were contained in a book which was written up by Moses (Exo 17:14; 24:4; Deut 31:24, 26).  This book became known as the “Law of Moses” (Joshua 8:31; 23:6; 2 Kings 14:6; 2 Chron 34:14; etc.) or the “book of Moses” (2 Chron 35:12; Ezra 6:18; etc.). It was kept “beside the Ark of the Covenant” (Deut 31:26). To quote typical verses:

just as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded the sons of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses” (Josh 8:31).

Take this Book of the Law, and put it beside the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God, that it may be there as a witness against you” (Deut 31:26).

The annual Sabbaths were part of the seven annual feasts, and fell, like our annual holidays, on any day of the week.

Origin

Another important distinction between the weekly and annual Sabbaths is their origin:

The Seventh Day was blessed and sanctified at creation (Gen 2:1-3).  Christ therefore could say that the Sabbath was made for man (all people) (Mark 2:27).  Many people are unable to believe the creation account, but at least must agree that Moses and Christ believed that the seventh day was sanctified at creation.

The annual Sabbaths were given to the Jews specifically, thousands of years later.

Which Sabbath is intended in Col 2:16?

It is sometimes said that the “Sabbath” in Col 2:16 does not refer to the weekly seventh-day Sabbath, but to the annual Sabbaths.

Hebrews 10

This view is argued as follows:

The Sabbath in Col 2:16 is “a shadow of things to come” (Col 2:17). A shadow, in this sense, is an image of a major future event.

Hebrews 10:1-10 also mentions a “shadow” and “things to come”.  In Hebrews 10 the “shadow” is the Jewish sacrificial system and the “things to come” are “the offering of the body of Jesus Christ” (Heb 10:10).

The CrossIt is then assumed that the “things to come” in Col 2:17 also refer to is “the offering of the body of Jesus Christ”.

Since “the offering of the body of Jesus Christ” is God’s solution to the sin problem, any shadow of His death must have been instituted after the entrance of sin into this world.  Since the Sabbaths in 2:16 are then a shadow of His death, they cannot refer to the weekly Sabbath because the weekly Sabbath was sanctified before sin (Exo 20:8, 11).  It can only be the annual Sabbaths (Lev 23).

The flaw in this argument is the assumption that the “things to come” refer to “the offering of the body of Jesus Christ”.  Col 2:16-17, which was written nearly 30 years after Christ’s death, says that the special days and Sabbaths “are (now, today) a shadow of things to come (in the future)”.  This means that the special days in Col 2:16-17, including the Sabbaths, do not point to Christ’s death, but to His second coming and the renewal of all things.  It is argued below that the festivals and annual Sabbaths do also point to the renewal of all things, but the same applies to the weekly Sabbath.  Hebrews 4 describes the weekly Sabbath as a shadow of the eternal rest in the new heavens and new earth. The Sabbaths in Col 2:16 may therefore include the weekly Sabbath.

Sabbaths (Plural)

A second argument sometimes used, to show that the “Sabbath” in Col 2:16 refers to the annual Sabbaths, is that the Greek term for Sabbath in Col 2:16 is plural in form (sabbaton) and that it is better to apply it to the annual Sabbaths, of which there were many in a year.  But this argument does not hold because sabbaton is quite frequently translated as “Sabbath” (singular) because the context indicates that it must be singular, for instance:

At that time Jesus went through the grainfields on the Sabbath (Sabbaton)” (Matt 12:1; see Matt 12:2, 5, 8, 10, 11 and 12).

But pray that your flight will not be in the winter, or on a Sabbath (Sabbaton)” (Matt 24:20).

Matthew 28:1, “Now after the Sabbath (Sabbaton)

They went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach” (Mark 1:21).

Luke 4:16, “He entered the synagogue on the Sabbath

Acts 16:13, “And on the Sabbath day

It is the Weekly Sabbath.

Further proof that the Sabbath in Col 2:16-17 refers to the weekly Sabbath includes the following:

Firstly, the sequencefestivals, new moons, or Sabbaths” is found several times in the Old Testament (2 Chron 2:4; 31:3; Neh 10:33; Ezek 45:17; Hosea 2:11) and also several times in literature outside the Bible (Jub 1:14; Jos Ber 3:11; Justin, Dialogue 8:4.). At times the order is reversed, but “new moon” is always in the middle. Since the festivals were annual and the new moons were monthly, the sequence implies that the Sabbaths were weekly.

Secondly, the phrase “festivals, new moons, or Sabbaths” was used as a composite technical term to refer to all of Israel’s holy days, which means that this phrase must include the Sabbath.   See the separate discussion of “Feasts … New Moons … Sabbaths” for more detail.

This is confirmed by Numbers 23, which lists Israel’s holy days, including the weekly Sabbath.  The implication is that the weekly Sabbath was regarded as part of the system of holy days.

Thirdly, all the verses that refer to the sequence “festivals … new moons … Sabbaths” actually are a summary of the daily, weekly, monthly, and annual sacrifices prescribed in Numbers 28.  Many of these verses that refer to the sequence “festivals … new moons … Sabbaths” refer explicitly to sacrifices, for instance:

to offer all burnt offerings to the LORD, on the sabbaths, the new moons and the fixed festivals” (1 Chron 23:31).

The Sabbath in Col 2:16 at least includes the weekly Sabbaths because Col 2:16 is based on Numbers 28, and Numbers 28 include sacrifices for the weekly Sabbath:

  • Daily:a continual burnt offering every day” (Num 28:3-8)
  • Weekly:on the sabbath day … every sabbath” (Num 28:9-10)
  • Monthly:at the beginning of each of your month” (new moons) (Num 28:11-15), and
  • Annual: the feast days (Num 28:16-40); “the LORD’S Passover” (Num 28:16), “feast, unleavened bread” (Num 28:17) and “the day of the first fruits” (Num 28:26).

Fourthly, the annual Sabbaths are already included in the “festivals” in the sequence “festivals … new moon … Sabbath day” (Col 2:16).  If “a Sabbath day” meant the annual Sabbaths there would be needless repetition.

The evidence is therefore that the Sabbath in Col 2:16-17 refers to the weekly Sabbath.

TO: Colossians Table of Contents

TO: General Table of Contents