Philippians 2: Jesus had equality with God, but emptied Himself of it.

God cannot empty Himself of equality with Himself but Jesus did (Phil 2:6-7). That implies that Jesus is not God.  Philippians 2, on the other hand, also says that every knee will bow to Jesus (Phil 2:10-11).  That implies that Jesus is God. 

Philippians mapPhilippians 2:5-11 contains a profound statement of the nature and being of Christ.  It describes Him through four chronological stages; (1) pre-existence, (2) incarnation, (3) death and (4) exaltation:


Christ Jesus, who,
although He existed in the form of God,
did not regard equality with God
a thing to be grasped
” (Phil 2:5-6).

Firstly, this confirms that Jesus existed before He became a human being.  Some Unitarians (as opposed to Trinitarians) deny His pre-existence (e.g., Dustin Smith).

Secondly, He existed in the form of God: Isaiah saw “the Lord sitting on a throne, lofty and exalted, with the train of His robe filling the temple. Seraphim stood above Him, each having six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew” (Isa 6:1-4).  Since Jesus, before He became a human being, existed in the form of God, this could have been a vision of Him.


“Jesus Christ …
emptied Himself, taking
the form of a bond-servant,
and being made
in the likeness of men” (Phil 2:7)


What did He empty Himself of? Since Christ “did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied Himself,” we infer that He emptied Himself of “equality with God.”  He also “emptied Himself” of “the form of God,” for He took on “the form of a bond-servant … being made in the likeness of men” (Phil 2:6-7).


Adam attempted to seize equality with God (Gen 3:5 – “You will be like God”). Christ did the opposite: “He had to be made like his brothers in all things” (Heb 2:17).  He emptied Himself of His powers and knowledge, beginning His human life as a vulnerable human baby (Luke 2:7; Gal 4:4).  He performed many miracles, but only because “God anointed Him with the Holy Spirit and with power” (Acts 10:38). “Our Lord Jesus Christ … though He was rich, yet for your sake He became poor” (2 Cor 8:9). He voluntarily descended to the realm where He was “despised and forsaken of men, a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief” (Isa 53:3).


Jesus is the visible image of the invisible God (Col 1:15). For that reason, Jesus said, “He who has seen Me has seen the Father” (John 14:9). That Jesus emptied Himself when He became a human being also reveals God to us; how much God loves His creatures; even His enemies. “God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son” (John 3:16).


He became a real human being. Just like us, He had to grow in wisdom and stature (Luke 2:52). “Although He was a Son, He learned obedience from the things which He suffered” (Heb 5:8). He became weary (John 4:6), thirsty (John 19:28) and hungry (Mt 4:2). He marveled at the faith of the centurion (Mt 8:10) and experienced sorrow when Lazarus died (John 11:35). In Gethsemane, He grieved deeply, to the point of death (Mt 26:38). The next day He died (Mark 15:37). Jesus did not just look like a man; He was truly and fully human.


How it was possible for the Person, through whom God created all things, and who “upholds all things by the word of His power” (Heb 1:3), to be transformed into a human embryo, we cannot begin to understand, and we will not even try. “The secret things belong to the LORD our God” (Deut 29:29).


What we want to learn through the current series of articles is who Jesus really is; not only who He was as a human being. He said, “I can do nothing on My own initiative” (John 5:30). Since He emptied Himself of equality with God and of the form of God, we must always ask whether such statements are also true of His eternal being.


Being found in appearance as a man,
He humbled Himself
by becoming obedient to the point of death,
even death on a cross
” (Phil 2:8)

He suffered a cruel death.

He remained “obedient to the point of death.”  As discussed in the articles about the sealed book of Revelation, the important matter is not His death, but His obedience. His entire life was a test, namely to see whether He would remain obedient under the most severe circumstances. Satan was allowed to test Jesus, even “to the point of death.” But Jesus remained faithful, “that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil” (Heb 2:14). (See, Why Jesus had to die.)


For this reason also,
God highly exalted Him,
and bestowed on Him the name
which is above every name,
so that at the name of Jesus
of those who are in heaven
and on earth and under the earth,
and that every tongue will confess
that Jesus Christ is Lord,
to the glory of God the Father.
” (Phil 2:9-11)

This means that Jesus is worshiped.  The Bible commands us to worship only God, but we must also worship Jesus.  Does that mean that Jesus is God?


The reader might perhaps find this surprising, but this passage in Philippians 2, consistent with the rest of the New Testament, reserves the title “God” for the Father only, as can also be seen in the following examples:


Before Jesus became a human being, He existed in the form of God and had equality with God. If an angel appears in the form of a man, he is still an angel and not a man. Similarly, that Jesus existed in the form of God does not mean that He is God. On the contrary, it means that He was distinct from God.


That Jesus had equality with God also logically means that He is not God.

This is confirmed by the fact that Jesus was able to empty Himself of equality with God. God may perhaps be able to empty Himself of His divine form and glory but God cannot empty Himself of equality with Himself.

Jesus did say that He does not know the hour or the day of His second coming, “but the Father alone” (Mt 24:36; cf. Mark 13:26-27, 32). Those who hold that Jesus is God, and who argue that He only emptied Himself of His divine form and glory, sometimes attempt to explain this lack of knowledge by arguing that He was two beings in one; a divine and a human person. They propose that His divine side knew all things, but His human side knew not. This view of Jesus I do not accept. How can a person know something but at the same time also not know that same thing?


After Jesus’ death on the Cross, His resurrection and ascension,

God highly exalted Him,
and bestowed on Him the name
which is above every name.

This confirms that Jesus is distinct from God.


The entire New Testament teaches that Jesus is distinct from God.  See The NT reserves the title “God” for the Father.  Examples from that article include the following:

Jesus prayed, “This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent” (John 17:3).

There is but one God, the Father … and one Lord, Jesus Christ” (1 Cor 8:6).

Jesus “is the (visible) image of the invisible God” (Col 1:15).

Jesus “spent the whole night in prayer to God” (Luke 6:12).


It needs to be added that there is no word in the ancient Hebrew or Greek text of the Bible that is the exact equivalent of the word “God.” In modern English, we use “God” as a name (a proper noun) for one specific Being, namely the Almighty. The Hebrew and Greek texts use the words Elohim and theos as general nouns, referring to a class of beings, equivalent to our words “gods” and “god.” Since the Bible is a book about God, it uses theos mostly for the Father. But a number of times theos is also used for other beings, including for false gods, the devil and for appetite, and even for people that are inspired by God with special messages (John 10:34-35).

For example, when Jesus said “I and the Father are one,” the Jews became very angry.  They were ready to stone Him, “because You, being a man, make Yourself out to be God” (John 10:33). This verse is discussed in the article Did Jesus claim to be God? In His defense Jesus referred to Psalm 82:6, which reads:

Rescue the weak and needy … I have said, ‘You are gods (Elohim); you are all sons of the Most High’

Jesus explained, “If he called them gods, to whom the word of God came” (John 10:34-35).  This is one example of where the Bible uses Elohim and theos in the general sense of the word, indicating someone exalted above others.

Therefore, when translators interpret a passage, that contains the word theos, as referring to the Most High (the Almighty), they translate it as “God.”  In other instances, they might translate it as “god.”  The point is that we should not focus too much on the name “God.”  What is more important is who and what Jesus is.  For further discussion, see the article The Meanings of the Word THEOS.


Philippians 2 also presents Jesus as subordinate to God, for it teaches that “God” highly exalted Jesus (Phil 2:9). As discussed in the article Subordinate to God, this is also taught all over the New Testament.  For instance:

The most frequent quote in the New Testament, from the Old Testament, is that Jesus today sits at the right hand of God (e.g. Acts 2:33).  This both shows that He is distinct from and subordinate to God.

Years after Jesus’ ascension, Paul wrote, “Christ is the head of every man, and … and God is the head of Christ” (1 Cor 11:3).  This was therefore not only true when Jesus lived as a man on earth,

All will honor the Son even as they honor the Father” (John 5:23) because the Father “has given all judgment to the Son.” (John  5:22; note the “so that.”)

The article – Subordinate to God – shows that the Bible teaches that everything which Jesus has, He received from His Father.  This includes His ability to raise the dead, His authority to judge, His teachings, His works, and His disciples.  He even received the Fullness of Deity from God.

Jesus said, “My food is doing the will of him who sent me and finishing the work he has given me” (John 4:34; Phillips).  This confirms that Jesus was subordinate to the Father even before He became a human being.

Jesus referred to God as His God.  He said, “I ascend to … My God” (John 20:17).

These verses also confirm that the Most High is the Great Source of all things and that the title “God” is reserved for the Most High.  Jesus is not the Source; He is the Means through which the Most High created (and still upholds) all things.  But we worship Jesus:


Philippians 2 teaches that the New Testament reserves the title “God” for the Father and that Jesus is subordinate to God, but it also teaches that Jesus must be worshiped.  God highly exalted Him so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow and every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord (Phil 2:9-11).  As we read elsewhere, “All will honor the Son even as they honor the Father” (John 5:23).  In Revelation 5 heavenly beings fell down before the Lamb with the prayers of the saints and give honor to both Him who sits on the throne (the Father), and to the Lamb.  God commanded all angels to worship His Son (Heb 1:6).  We must honor Jesus as we honor the Father.

On the other hand, the Bible teaches that only God may be worshiped: “You shall worship the Lord your God and serve Him only” (Luke 4:8).  The question, therefore, is why do we worship Jesus, if He is not God?


Many Christians argue that Jesus is worshiped because He is co-equal with the Father, but we already noted that Jesus is subordinate to God.  Philippians 2:9-11 also explains why Jesus is worshiped:

God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus EVERY KNEE WILL BOW … and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Firstly, every knee will bow to Jesus because God exalted Him and gave Him a name “which is above every name.”  That God gave Him this name means that God elevated Jesus above all else.  God is the great Source of power and authority.  Jesus received everything from God; also such an exalted position that it is right and proper for created beings to worship Him.  This agrees with Hebrews 1:6, which says that God commanded all angels to worship His Son.

Secondly, the beings of the universe do not confess Jesus as God; they confess that “Jesus Christ is Lord.”  The article Jesus in Colossians shows that Jesus is never called God; He is always called Lord.  This is the consistent pattern of the New Testament; Jesus is Lord and to the Father is God.

Thirdly, all will confess that He is Lord “to the glory of God the Father.”  In other words, Jesus is not worshiped independently of God the Father (cf. Rev 5).  By giving glory to Jesus, the universe gives glory to God.  The worship of the universe flows through Jesus to the Father.  Jesus is the visible image of the invisible God (Col 1:15), appearing in the form of God.  Through Him, we worship God, who exists outside space, time, and matter.

These are the reasons we find in Philippians 2, but this is not to say that we worship a created being.  Jesus is not created, but the Only Begotten Son of God.

JOHN 1:1

Philippians 2 helps us to understand John 1:1.  Both passages make a distinction between God and Jesus, but both also describe Jesus as divine.  John 1:1 reads:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

The Word is Jesus.  Some deny this, saying that “the Word” is God’s creative power or that Jesus pre-existed only as God’s plan, and that Jesus did not literally exist before He came to exist in Mary’s womb.  A number of articles have been published on this website on the translation of John 1:1.  One of these identifies the Word of John 1:1 as Jesus.


This phrase in John 1:1b makes a distinction between God and Jesus, consistent with what we find in Philippians 2 and everywhere else in the New Testament.

Angel Gabriel said to Mary that Jesus will be called the Son of the Most High (Luke 1:26-32).  The Most High, therefore, is Jesus’ Father.  Jesus generally referred to the Most High as “Father.” In the phrase “the Word was with God,” the title “God,” therefore, refers to the Father, who is “the Most High.

Therefore, in the way that the New Testament uses the title “God,” Jesus is not God.  But then John 1:1 continues to say:


In most Bibles, this is translated as, “the Word was God.”  For many Christians, this is the best proof that Jesus is God.

This phrase is one of the few exceptions where the New Testament uses the title theos not for the Most High.

As explained above, there is an important difference between the titles “God” and theos.  With further identification in the context, theos may be translated as “God,” but theos has a range of other possible meanings, including:

False gods, for example, “there are many gods and many lords, yet for us there is but one God, the Father” (1 Cor 8:5-6);
Real things that oppose God, such as “the god of this world” (1 Cor 4:4) and “whose god is their appetite” (Phil 3:19);
Beings mandated by God, for instance, “the LORD said to Moses, ‘See, I make you as God to Pharaoh’” (Exo 7:1), and those “to whom the word of God came” (John 10:35), also mentioned above;
Qualitatively, e.g. “divine” or “Godlike.”  We can describe our local sports hero as a god, referring to his or her near-superhuman abilities.

Given these possible meanings, and since the previous phrase and the entire New Testament makes a distinction between God and Jesus, it is proposed that the phrase “the Word was theos” does not identify Jesus as identical to “the only true God” to whom Jesus prayed (John 17:3).

One of the articles on John 1:1 argues that The Word was God is not the correct translation because theos is used in John 1:1c with a qualitative sense.  In other words, the title theos in John 1:1 describes Jesus as Godlike.  That Jesus “was theos” can therefore be understood as equivalent to the statements in Philippians 2 that Jesus exists in the form of God, has equality with God and “at the name of Jesus every knee will bow” (Phil 2:10).  A similar statement is:

In Him all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily form” (Col 2:9).

This is often used to argue that Jesus is co-equal with the Father, but it was the Father who gave “all the fullness to dwell in Him” (Col 1:19).

It is proposed, in summary, when theos is used for the Most High, that it identifies the Invisible God, who is the uncaused Cause of the universe and everything inside of it.  But when John 1:1 applies the title “God” to Jesus, it is not a definite (God) or an indefinite (a god) use of the noun, but a qualitative use, describing Jesus as equal to the Most High in the esteem and affections of the created universe.


Above it is repeatedly said that the New Testament only refers to the Father as God.  However, out of the more than 1300 times that theos appears in the New Testament, there are about seven instances where theos possibly refers to Jesus.  These instances are discussed in the article Is Jesus called God?  It is shown that in every instance there is either uncertainty with respect to:

The Source Text, for instance, the manuscripts of John 1:18 with the widest distribution do not describe Jesus as theos.  See Is Jesus called God in John 1:18?
The punctuation, for instance, in Romans 9:5 it is all a matter of punctuation, and all punctuation in the Bible is interpretation.  See Is Jesus called God in Romans?
The interpretation, for instance, John 1:1.  See The Word was God.


After the wonderful Christ-events of the first century, the church had to make sense of what just happened.  On the one hand, the church originated as a sect of Judaism (see Jerusalem Phase of the Early Church), with its strong emphasis on monotheism.  On the other hand, Jesus appeared as a human being but is worshiped and declared to be “the first and the last” (Rev 1:17; 2:8).  Various theories about Christ developed and were tolerated over the next 200 years.

But when the church, in the fourth century, became the official religion of the Roman Empire, Caesar Constantine sought to ensure unity in his empire.  To reduce conflict, he forced the church to formulate a majority position.  This was done in the year 325 in what is known as the Nicene Creed.  This creed did not yet contain the idea of a Trinity, namely three Persons in one Being.  The emphasis in this creed was to declare Jesus as God and of the same substance as the Father.  A new invention in the creed was to condemn or curse all Christians who do not agree with the creed.  This non-tolerance reflects the culture of the Roman Empire which controlled the church at the time.

After the year 325 differing views remained, and various alternative creeds were proposed.  In the year 344, for instance, the Eastern church issued the Creed of the Long Lines as an alternative to the Nicene Creed.  And in the year 381, the Nicene Creed was adjusted as shown in Wikipedia’s page on the Nicene Creed.

As said above, this website opposes this view that Jesus is of the same substance as God.  So what view of Christ does this website prefer?  It may be fair to say that this website represents the LOGOS theories that dominated in the second century.


This concept is critical for understanding who Jesus is:

God created and upholds all things through Jesus: All things have been created through Him (Jesus) and for Him.  He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together” (Col 1:16-17).  “There is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him” (1 Cor 8:6).

God communicates to the universe through Jesus:  “No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him” (John 1:18).  “His name is called The Word of God” (Rev 19:13).

God reconciled all things to Himself through Jesus:  “For it was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself” (Col 1:19-20).  “For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim 2:5).

In other words, everything which God does, He does through His Son.


In addition to what we read in Philippians 2, we read of many things that elevate Jesus to the level of God:

Jesus said, “All things that the Father has are Mine” (John 16:15).

All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me” (Matthew 28:18).

No one knows the Son except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father except the Son” (Mt 11:27; cf. Luke 10:22).  This is an amazing statement of equality.

God not only created all things through His Son; “in Him (Jesus) all things hold together” (Col 1:17; cf. Heb 1:3).

Jesus is not a created being; He is the Only Begotten Son of God (John 3:18, 16).


To reconcile the competing ideas in the New Testament, this website puts forward the following hypothesis:

By begetting His Son, God made all things.  It is proposed that this is what it means when we read that God created all things through Jesus.  The implication would be that the Son always existed, for God also created time by begetting His Son.

God does not exist in time.  Rather, time, together with the space and matter of the universe, exists somewhere inside God.  God is not subject to time.

Jesus is the link between the universe and God. Through Jesus, all creative and sustaining power flows from God to the universe, and through Jesus, all thanksgiving and praise flow from the intelligent beings back to God.  “Every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Jesus is the God of the Old Testament.  Every visible and personal appearance of God in the Old Testament is an appearance of Jesus, in the form of God.  See Jesus in the Old Testament.

The reader may regard this hypothesis as mere speculation, and that is what it is, for these matters are necessarily beyond human understanding.  It is simply the writer’s personal present understanding of the facts that Jesus is described as distinct from God, and as subordinate to God, but is also described in the most exalted terms.  (This website does not represent the views of any particular denomination.)

To the current writer it is abundantly clear that the view that Jesus is God, co-equal to the Father, which dominated the church over the centuries, must be nuanced, for, in the form in which it is often expressed, it contradicts the Bible.

As discussed above, in the centuries after Christ the church struggled to explain who Jesus is.  The current writer suspects that it is sin to go beyond what the Bible teaches about Jesus, for we are dealing with infinity, and infinity by definition will always remain an infinity, even after we have lived for a hundred thousand million years.  There are things we just cannot understand.  The efforts to explains the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as a Trinity may therefore be sin, for it goes beyond what the Bible teaches.  And my own hypothesis may be sin.





    • Philippians 2Christ did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied Himself.
    • 1 Corinthians 8:6Did Paul divide the words of the Shema between the Father and the Son?
    • John 10:33 – Did Jesus claim to be God? – 
    • John 10:30I and the Father are one.” Are Jesus and the Father are one being?
    • Col 1:15Firstborn of all creation – Does that mean that He is part of creation?


Specific concepts that are discussed in different parts of the Bible.


Discussion of the instances where the New Testament refers to Jesus as God:

        • Overview – Overview of the articles on the verses that refer to Jesus as theos
        • Theos – The word translated as “God” is theos. What does this word mean?
        • John 1:18The original text of John 1:18 is disputed.
        • John 20:28Jesus did not teach that He is God. Where would Thomas have heard that Jesus is God?
        • John’s gospelDiscussion of the instances where this gospel refers to Jesus as theos.
        • Romans 9:5 – Whether this verse refers to Jesus as God depends on punctuation, and punctuation is interpretation.
        • Hebrews 1:8 – This verse refers to Jesus as theos but the next verse says that God is His theos.


      • Introduction – In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
      • Who is the word? – Does “the Word” refer to Jesus, or is it a personification of the Wisdom of God in creation?
      • The word was a god. – Arguments against the Jehovah Witness translation; “the Word was a god” – Another article discusses the Jehovah Witness argument, to support their translation, that theos is a count noun.
      • The word like God.Arguments against the usual translation; “the Word was God.” Theos in John 1:1c has a qualitative force and should be translated as “the Word was like God.

List of articles on the Seven Seals, with brief descriptions

This article lists and briefly describes the articles that discuss the second main section of Revelation, namely the seven seals in Revelation 4:1-8:1.


Revelation 4:1-8 – verse-by-verse
These verses provide a visual and timeless description of God’s throne room.

The 24 elders – Revelation 4:4
Based on descriptions elsewhere in Revelation, the 24 elders in God’s throne room are people; not angels. A review of the numbers in Revelation shows that 12 and 24 are associated with God’s people. Revelation merges God’s people from the Old and New Testaments into a single entity. The number 24, therefore, consists of 12 from Israel and 12 from the church age. 

Revelation 4:8-11 – verse-by-verse
These verses describe the worship in God’s presence. This article also discusses the worship in Revelation 5, after Jesus appears on the throne and receives glory equal with the Father. Does this mean that Jesus is God; equal with the Father?


Revelation 5 is Christ’s enthronement.
This chapter presents a specific event. Based on descriptions in the rest of the New Testament, Revelation 5 describes Christ’s enthronement after His ascension 2000 years ago.

The sealed book is the Lamb’s Book of Life.
The sealed book symbolizes things that are not understood and the seven seals symbolizes the things that prevent understanding. It is the book of God’s judgments as to who will inherit eternal life, also known as the book of life.

Christ resolves the crisis of the sealed book through demonstrations.
The book of Rev 5 is sealed because of a dispute between the angels of heaven over God’s judgments. Christ refutes Satan’s accusation through demonstrations of faithfulness: Firstly, during His own death, He overcame Satan’s ultimate temptation. Secondly, the death’s of God’s elect demonstrate their worthiness. God delays Christ’s return and the implementation of His judgments until all understand that His judgments are perfect.

Revelation 5 – verse by verse
This article is highly dependent on the other three articles on Revelation 5. The first four verses describe the time before Christ, verses 5-6 describe His death and the rest of the chapter describes what happens in heaven after His ascension.


The First Seal – the white horse
When the Lamb breaks the first seal, a white horse goes out conquering and to conquer. In the preterist view, this is the Parthians, who attacked the Roman Empire on white horses. Dispensationalists identify this as the antichrist. This article interprets it as the gospel.

Seals two to four
The four horsemen form a unit, which means that these seals stand is a cause-consequence relationship: The white horse is the gospel. The red horse is the persecution of God’s people when the gospel is rejected. The consequence is the black horse of famine (scarcity) of the Word of God, leading to the pale horse of spiritual death.

Fifth seal
Souls UNDER the altar cry out for revenge. The souls are not believers that went to heaven in a bodiless state at death but symbolize God’s slain people as sacrificed ON the altar. Their cry for revenge symbolizes God’s awareness of the suffering of His people and His desire to set things right. They receive white robes but they have washed their own robes (Rev 7:14). They are told to wait until their brethren have been made complete, which means spiritually mature.

The sixth seal
This seal is creation in reverse: Everything is destroyed but it is not yet the end, for the people still hide, while they will be killed when Christ returns. But it brings us to the brink of His return, as indicated by the multiple allusions to the Day of the Lord, the “great day,” the “great earthquake” which moves mountains, the signs in the sun, moon and stars.


Sealed through persecution
God’s people will also be sealed DURING AND THROUGH the Revelation 13-crisis in which the image of the beast will force all people to accept the mark of the beast. The plagues will begin to fall when every person will either have the mark of the beast or the seal of God.

The Seal of the living God
People are sealed with the Holy Spirit when they become Christians but the seal in Revelation 7 is
something special that only end-time believers will receive to safeguard them during the final catastrophic events before Christ returns. God will make more of His grace and power available to the last-day church, because she must accomplish more than the church in any age has yet accomplished.

The Time of the End
The seal of God comes down from heaven at a specific point in history. This article argues that the fifth seal, when the souls under the altar are told to rest for a little while longer, represents that point in time and that that is the beginning of “the time of the end” (Daniel 12:4) when Daniel’s prophecies will become understood and preached.

144000 are sealed from the tribes of Israel.
These 144000 Israelites cannot be interpreted literally because numbers, in Revelation, are symbolic and because Revelation and the entire New Testament merges the church into Israel. The number 144000 symbolizes that these people are spiritually mature and will not withdraw their testimony under persecution.

The Innumerable Multitude
Revelation 7:9-17; verse-by-verse – Is the Great Multitude the same as 144000? They seem like complete opposites. Are this multitude described before or after Christ’s return?


Seventh seal
This seal is very brief. In a single brief verse, it simply says that there will be silence in heaven for half an hour. On the basis of the context, this article interprets it as the sorrow in heaven when the lost are put to death at the return of Christ.

Does the seventh seal include the seven trumpets?
he seventh seal DOES NOT include the seven trumpets. The seals describe the experience of God’s people but the last two seals show the destruction of the lost. The trumpets then jump back in time to explain what God did to turn the lost from their disastrous paths.


People’s deeds will refute Satan’s criticism of God’s judgments.
Previous articles concluded that the sealed book is the book of life and the seals are Satan’s accusations against the people listed in the book. Breaking the seals symbolizes that Satan’s accusations are refuted. From the description of the Last Judgment in Revelation 20, this article concludes that it is the deeds of people that refute Satan’s accusations. God’s people wijll choose death rather than going against God’s laws. Satan’s people will show that they are irreversibly committed to evil.

Verse-by-verse summary – Revelation 4:1-8:1.
Each of the articles above also has a summary.  The verse-by-verse summary is, essentially, a combination of these summaries.