What did the accuser of our brethren say, and what evidence did Christ provide?

The arguments of the accuser of our brethren is beyond human understanding, but perhaps include allegations that God is demanding, that His law is selfish and that His judgments are unjust.

This is the fifth article on the War in Heaven.

The first article identified the role-players in this war:
● The Male Child, who was caught up to God,
● His mother, who existed both before and after Christ, and
● The Dragon, that stood ready to devour the Child as soon as He is born.
● Michael, who wages war in heaven with the Dragon.

The second article analyzed the chronological sequence of the major events:
● The war in heaven,
● The ascension of the Male Child,
● The victory in the war,
● Satan cast down to earth and
● The woman hiding in wilderness.

The third article explains how Michael overcame the accuser of our brethren.  Satan deceives and accuses.  To explain how “the blood of the Lamb and … the word of their testimony” were able to overcome Satan’s accusations, this article explains the origin of evil, God’s judgment of evil, and how evil defends itself against God.

The previous article concluded that Christ’s death defeated the accuser of our brethren, but verse 11 adds that they overcame him because of “their testimony.”  The fourth article asks who they are, and why was their testimony required to expel Satan from heaven?

The accuser of our brethren and Jesus’ evidence

Satan specifically accused God’s people (Rev. 12:10).  A previous article argued that Satan effectively accused God of bad judgment.  The accuser of our brethren claimed that God is unfair when He forgives people their sins, but condemns Satan and his angels.  To refute Satan’s charges, God required evidence, and Christ’s death showed that God is just when He justifies sinners.

But exactly what did the accuser of our brethren say, and what evidence did Christ provide?  The answer to this question is beyond human understanding, and is not clearly revealed in Scriptures.  The following are some of the evidence which Jesus possibly provided:

The serpent said to the woman, “You surely will not die!  For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil” (Gen. 3:4-5).  In other words, Satan said that God did not tell the full truth.  If Satan did this with Eve, then we conclude that one of Satan’s basic strategies is to tell lies to about God.
However, Jesus is the exact representation of God’s nature (Heb. 1:3); “the image of the invisible God” (Col 1:15), and He revealed the truth about God.

The cruelty of the accuser of our brethren, as displayed in his malicious persecution of the only begotten Son of God, demonstrated Satan’s nature and the consequences of his principles.

Jesus became a human being, and as a man He overcame by faith.  In this way He demonstrated that human beings are able to obey God’s law perfectly.  In other words, He showed that there is nothing wrong with God’s law.

God justifies sinners “by grace … through faith” (Eph. 2:8), but the accuser of our brethren argued that God is unjust when He justifies sinners by grace.  Jesus showed that faith is a valid basis for justification, thereby validating God’s grace.

The conflict between Jesus and Satan, after Jesus became a human being, therefore reveals much about God, about the accuser of our brethren, about God’s law, about God’s redemption and about many other things.  This will probably be our main subject of study in the ages ahead, and not something which we can comprehend in this life, even after a lifetime of study.

Some of the concepts above require clarification:

Jesus overcame by faith.

Romans 3:25 indicates that Jesus’ death was a public display of God’s righteousness “through faith.”  This is understood as saying that His death demonstrated faith.  People do not like to say that Jesus displayed faith in God because they think of Jesus as God Himself.  But a series of articles on this website shows that the New Testament maintains a clear distinction between God and Jesus.  For example:

There is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim. 1:5).

God made the worldthrough” His Son (Heb. 1:2), which means that God is the Source and Power of all things.

Only two beings have “life in Himself,” namely the Father and the Son, but the Father “gave to the Son also to have life in Himself” (John 5:26).

Like the “LORD of hosts” Jesus could say “I am the first and the last” (Rev. 1:17; cf. Is 44:6).  This is understood to mean that there was no time that the Son did not exist.  Nevertheless, He is not the Ultimate Source of all things.

Before He became a human being, Jesus existed in the form of God and had equity with God (Phil. 2:5).  This also shows how the NT makes a distinction between God and Jesus.  This verse shows this distinction before Jesus became a human being.  But Jesus “emptied Himself” (v7) of the form of God.  He became fully and only a human being, and had to exercise faith.  When He hanged on the Cross, and cried out, “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me,” He did not act in knowledge, but in faith.

Jesus validated God’s grace.

The accuser of our brethren argued that grace is not just.

Christ Jesus; whom God displayed publicly … in His blood … to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed … so that He would be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.” (Rom. 3:25-26)

Over the centuries theologians explained this passage as that God’s righteousness demanded that sins cannot be forgiven; that someone had to pay.  But it is proposed here that God had to demonstrate His righteousness because His righteousness was questioned.  This is actually explicitly stated in the text, for it tells us why He had to demonstrate His righteousness, namely “because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins.” In other words, He forgave sinners their sins: He justified them “as a gift by His grace” (Rom. 3:24); “by grace … through faith” (Eph. 2:8; cf. Rom. 4:16).  Romans 3:25-26 could be understood as saying that the accuser of our brethren accused God of being unjust when God, through grace, forgives sinners merely on the basis of their faith.  Due to Satan’s extremely sophisticated arguments, the heavenly beings were not all convinced that God is just, and God had to demonstrate His righteousness

The standard theory of atonement today also questions God’s grace.  It says that God cannot forgive sins, that somebody has to pay, and Jesus paid that price.  If Jesus paid for our sins, then our sins were not forgiven, for to forgive a debt is to cancel it without payment.  We do not support the standard theory of atonement, for God is love (1 John 4:8), and love ”does not take into account a wrong suffered” (1 Cor. 13:5).  In other words, God does not keep our sins against us.

Jesus showed that grace is just.


Our brethren … overcame him … because of the word of their testimony” (Rev. 12:10-11).  These verses do not use the word “faith,” but testimony is another word for faith.  Faith is not just a nice feeling; it is what you are; it permeates the entire being; the thoughts, the desires, the words and the deeds.  However, they remained sinners. “Through one man sin entered into the world” (Rom. 5:12). Therefore “all have sinned” (Rom. 3:23).  Over the centuries many people have overcome Satan’s temptations, but the accuser of our brethren was always able to point out sins in them.  The testimony of His people was powerless against Satan’s accusations.

All have sinned,” but Jesus never sinned.  It is therefore assumed that He was born without the human tendency to sin.  He did not inherit our inclination to evil.  Somehow our predisposition to sin is carried forward from generation to generation, but the Son of God was not Mary’s natural child.  Mary was only His surrogate mother.

He was a sinless man in a corrupted world, and had to resist the maximum possible provocation and temptation, but never sinned.  “He humbled Himself by becoming obedient (without sin – Heb. 4:25) to the point of death” (Phil. 2:8).

God’s people overcame, but always remained sinners.  Jesus, through faith, overcame and never sinned.  It is possible that Jesus thereby validated the faith of “our brethren” as a sufficient basis for justification; that God is therefore just when He justifies sinners “as a gift by His grace” (Rom. 3:24, 26).  Perhaps Christ demonstrated that God’s people will remain free from sin, once God restored them, and they no longer have this lust for sin.

See the article on Romans 3:23-26 for more information. on those verses

Through Jesus’ life

People are “justified … through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus” (Rom. 3:24).  The next verse explains this redemption by saying that Jesus was “displayed publicly … in His blood.”  Similarly, in Revelation 12:11 the accuser of our brethren was overcome “because of the blood of the Lamb.”  These are reference to His death.

However, the evidence was not provided by Jesus’ death, but by His life.  If Jesus sinned anywhere in His life, His death would have been without value.  His entire life was a test.  At the beginning of His ministry, “Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil” (Mt. 4:1).  The Bible emphasizes on His death because the days and hours before He died was the highest test which He had to pass, and because His death was the end of His test.  “He said, ‘It is finished!’ And He bowed His head and gave up His spirit” (John 19:30).


Satan specifically accused God’s people. A previous article explained that Satan effectively accused God of bad judgment, but that Christ’s death showed that God is just when He justifies sinners.  These matters are beyond human understanding, for it has been the subject of dispute for many millennia, by intelligences much larger than ours.  This article proposes that what Christ revealed includes God’s love, Satan’s cruelty, the benevolence of God’s law and the justness of God’s grace.  These and related matters will be the subject of our study in the ages to come.

Articles on Revelation 12’s War in Heaven:

1. Who are the Male Child, His mother, the Dragon and Michael?
2. When was Satan Defeated?
3. How did Michael overcome Satan?
4. Who are they who overcame Satan because of “their testimony?”
5. What evidence did Christ provide that refuted Satan’s accusations? (Current)
6. Why did God not make an end of evil immediately after the Cross? (Next)

Philippians 2: Jesus had equality with God, but emptied Himself of it.

It is not conceivable that God can empty Himself of equality with God, but Jesus did.  This implies that Jesus is not God.  But Philippians 2 also says that every knee will bow to Jesus.  Why do we worship Jesus if He is not God?

Philippians mapPhilippians 2:5-11 contains a profound statement of the nature and being of Christ.  It describes Jesus through four chronological stages:

1. Pre-existence

Christ Jesus, who, although He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped” (2:5-6).

Firstly, this confirms that Jesus existed before He became a human being.  Some Unitarians (as opposed to Trinitarians) deny His pre-existence.

Secondly, He existed in the form of God:  Isaiah saw “the Lord sitting on a throne, lofty and exalted, with the train of His robe filling the temple. Seraphim stood above Him, each having six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew” (Is. 6:1-4).  Since Jesus, before He became a human being, existed in the form of God, this could have been a vision of Jesus.

2. Incarnation

Jesus Christ … emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men” (2:7)

What did He empty Himself of? 

Since Christ “did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied Himself,” we infer that He emptied Himself of “equality with God.”  He also “emptied Himself” of “the form of God,” for He took on “the form of a bond-servant … being made in the likeness of men” (2:6-7).

He humbled Himself.

Adam attempted to seize equality with God (Gen. 3:5 – “You will be like God”).  Christ did the opposite: “He had to be made like his brothers in all things” (Heb. 2:17).  He emptied Himself of His powers and knowledge, starting His human life as a vulnerable baby (Luke 2:7; Gal. 4:4).  He performed many miracles, but only because “God anointed Him with the Holy Spirit and with power” (Acts 10:38).  “Our Lord Jesus Christ … though He was rich, yet for your sake He became poor” (2 Cor. 8:9).  He voluntarily descended to the realm where He was “despised and forsaken of men, a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief” (Isaiah 53:3).

Jesus is the visible image of the invisible God (Col. 1:15).  Jesus therefore said, “He who has seen Me has seen the Father” (John 14:9).  That Jesus emptied Himself, when He became a human being, tells us what God is like; how much God loves His enemies.  “God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son” (John 3:16).

He became a real human being. 

Just like us, He had to grow in wisdom and stature (Luke 2:52).  “Although He was a Son, He learned obedience from the things which He suffered” (Heb. 5:8).  He became weary (John 4:6), thirsty (John 19:28) and hungry (Mt. 4:2).  He marveled at the faith of the centurion (Matthew 8:10) and experienced sorrow when Lazarus died (John 11:35).  In Gethsemane He grieved deeply, to the point of death (Mt. 26:38).  The next day He died (Mark 15:37).  Jesus did not just look like a man; He was truly and fully human.

How is it possible?

How it was possible for Jesus, through whom God created all things, and who “upholds all things by the word of His power” (Heb. 1:3), to be transformed into a human embryo, we cannot begin to understand, and we will not even try.  “The secret things belong to the LORD our God” (Deut. 29:29).

Who is Jesus eternally? 

What we want to learn through the current series of articles is who Jesus really is; not only who He was as a human being.  He said, “I can do nothing on My own initiative” (John 5:30).  Since He emptied Himself of equality with God, and was emptied of the powers which He had prior to His birth, we must always ask whether such statements are also true of His eternal being.

3. Death

Being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross” (2:8)

He suffered a cruel death.

He remained “obedient to the point of death.”  The important matter is not His death, but His obedience.  His entire life was a test, namely to see whether He would remain obedient in all circumstances.  Satan was allowed to test Jesus, even “to the point of death.”  But Jesus remained faithful, “that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil” (Heb. 2:14).  For a further discussion, see Why Jesus had to die.

4. Exaltation

For this reason also, God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus EVERY KNEE WILL BOW, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” (2:9-11)

This means that Jesus is worshiped.  The Bible commands us to worship only God, but we must also worship Jesus.  Does this mean that Jesus is God?

The Father is God.

The reader might perhaps find this surprising, but this passage in Philippians 2 shows that the New Testament reserves the title “God” for the Father only, as can be seen in the following:

1. He existed in the form of God (2:6).

Before Jesus became a human being, He existed in the form of God and had equality with God.  If an angel appears in the form of a man, he is still an angel and not a man.  Similarly, that Jesus existed in the form of God does not mean that He is God.  To the contrary, that Jesus existed in the form of God and that He had equality with God mean He was distinct from God.

2. He emptied Himself of equality with God (2:7). 

If Jesus is God, it would be impossible for Him to empty Himself of His divine nature.  He would only be able to empty Himself of His divine form and glory.  However, our text also states that He emptied Himself of equality with God.  It is not conceivable that God could do this.  Since Jesus was able to empty Himself of equality with God, it is implied that He is not God, given the way that the New Testament uses the word “God.”

Jesus said He did not know the hour or the day of His second coming, “but the Father alone” (Matthew 24:36; cf. Mark 13:26-27, 32).  Those who hold that Jesus is God, and who argue that He only emptied Himself of His divine form and glory, sometimes attempt to explain this lack of knowledge by arguing that He was two beings in one; a divine and a human person.  They propose that His divine side knew all things, but His human side knew not.  This view of Jesus we reject.  He is a single Being.

3. God highly exalted Him (2:9). 

God did this after Jesus’ death on the Cross, His resurrection and ascension.  This statement confirms that Jesus is distinct from God.

4. Taught all over the New Testament.

That Jesus is distinct from God, is taught everywhere in the New Testament.  See The NT reserves the title “God” for the Father.  Examples from this article include the following:

Jesus prayed, “This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent” (John 17:3).

There is but one God, the Father … and one Lord, Jesus Christ” (1 Cor. 8:6).

Jesus “is the (visible) image of the invisible God” (Col. 1:15).

Jesus “spent the whole night in prayer to God” (Luke 6:12).

The title God

It needs to be added that the word “God” does not appear in the ancient Hebrew or Greek text of the Bible.  In modern English we use “God” as a name (a proper noun) for one specific Being.  The Bible uses the words elohim and theos as general nouns, equivalent to our words “gods” and “god,” and used for all gods.  Since the Bible is a book about God, it uses theos almost always for the Father.  But a number of times theos is also used for other beings, including for false gods, the devil and for appetite and even for people that are mandated by God.

For example, when Jesus said “I and the Father are one,” the Jews became very angry.  They were ready to stone Him, “because You, being a man, make Yourself out to be God” (John 10:33).  In His defense Jesus referred to Psalms 82:6, which reads:

Rescue the weak and needy … I have said, ‘You are gods (Elohim); you are all sons of the Most High.’

Jesus explained, “If he called them gods, to whom the word of God came” (John 10:34-35).  This is one example of where the Bible uses elohim and theos in the general sense of the word, indicating someone exalted above others.

Therefore, when translators interpret a passage, that contains the word theos, as referring to the Most High, they translate it as “God.”  In other instances they might translate it as “god.”  The point is that we should not focus too much on the name “God.”  What is more important is who and what Jesus is.  For a further discussion, see the article The Meanings of the Word THEOS.

Jesus is subordinate to God.

Philippians 2 also presents Jesus as subordinate to God, for it teaches that “God” highly exalted Jesus (2:9). As discussed in the article Subordinate to God, this is also taught all over the New Testament.  For instance:

The most frequent quote in the New Testament, from the Old Testament, is that Jesus today sits at the right hand of God (e.g. Acts 2:33).  This both shows that He is distinct from and subordinate to God.

Years after Jesus’ ascension, Paul wrote, “Christ is the head of every man, and … and God is the head of Christ” (1 Cor. 11:3).  This was therefore not only true when Jesus lived as a man on earth,

All will honor the Son even as they honor the Father” (John 5:23) because the Father “has given all judgment to the Son.” (v22; note the “so that.”)

The article Subordinate to God, shows that the Bible teaches that everything which Jesus has, He received from His Father.  This includes His ability to raise the dead, His authority to judge, His teachings, His works and His disciples.  He even received the Fullness of Deity from God.

Jesus said, “My food is doing the will of him who sent me and finishing the work he has given me” (John 4:34; Phillips).  This confirms that Jesus was subordinate to the Father even before He became a human being.

Jesus referred to God as His God.  He said, “I ascend to … My God” (John 20:17).

These verses also confirm that the Most High is the Great Source of all things and that the title “God” is reserved for the Most High.  Jesus is not the Source; He is the Means through which the Most High created (and still upholds) all things.  But we worship Jesus:

Every knee will bow.

Philippians 2 teaches that the New Testament reserves the title “God” for the Father, and that Jesus is subordinate to God, but it also teaches that Jesus must be worshiped.  God highly exalted Him so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow and every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord (2:9-11).  As we read elsewhere, “All will honor the Son even as they honor the Father” (John 5:23).  In Revelation 5 heavenly beings fell down before the Lamb with the prayers of the saints and give honor to both Him who sits on the throne (the Father), and to the Lamb.  God commanded all angels to worship His Son (Heb. 1:6).  We must honor Jesus as we honor the Father.

On the other hand, the Bible teaches that only God may be worshiped: “You shall worship the Lord your God and serve Him only” (Luke 4:8).  The question is therefore, why do we worship Jesus, if He is not God?

We worship Jesus to the glory of God. 

Many Christians argue that Jesus is worshiped because He is co-equal with the Father, but we already noted that Jesus is subordinate to God.  Philippians 2:9-11 also explains why Jesus is worshiped:

God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus EVERY KNEE WILL BOW … and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Firstly, every knee will bow to Jesus because God exalted Him and gave Him a name “which is above every name.”  That God gave Him this name means that God elevated Jesus above all else.  God is the great Source of power and authority.  Jesus received everything from God; also such an exalted position that it is right and proper for created beings to worship Him.  This agrees with Hebrews 1:6, which says that God commanded all angels to worship His Son.

Secondly, the beings of the universe do not confess Jesus as God; they confess that “Jesus Christ is Lord.”  The article Jesus in Colossians shows that Jesus is never called God; He is always called Lord.  This is the consistent pattern of the New Testament; Jesus is Lord and to the Father is God.

Thirdly, all will confess that He is Lord “to the glory of God the Father.”  In other words, Jesus is not worshiped independently of God the Father (cf. Rev. 5).  By giving glory to Jesus, the universe gives glory to God.  The worship of the universe flows through Jesus to the Father.  Jesus is the visible image of the invisible God (Col. 1:15), appearing in the form of God.  Through Him we worship God, who exists outside space, time and matter.

These are the reasons we find in Philippians 2, but this is not to say that we worship a created being.  Jesus is not created, but the Only Begotten Son of God.

John 1:1

Philippians 2 helps us to understand John 1:1.  Both passages make a distinction between God and Jesus, but both also describe Jesus as divine.  John 1:1 reads:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

The Word is Jesus.  Some deny this, saying that “the Word” is God’s creative power or that Jesus pre-existed only as God’s plan, and that Jesus did not literally exist before He came to exist in Mary’s womb.  A number of articles have been published on this website on the translation of John 1:1.  One of these identifies the Word of John 1:1 as Jesus.

The Word was with God.

This phrase in John 1:1b makes a distinction between God and Jesus, consistent with what we find Philippians 2 and everywhere else in the New Testament.

Angel Gabriel said to Mary that Jesus will be called the Son of the Most High (Luke 1:26-32).  The Most High is therefore Jesus’ Father.  Jesus generally referred to the Most High as “Father.” In the phrase “the Word was with God,” the title “God” therefore refers to the Father, who is “the Most High.

Therefore, in the way that the New Testament uses the title “God,” Jesus is not God.  But then John 1:1 continues to say:

The Word was theos.

In most Bibles this is translated as, “the Word was God.”  For many Christians this is the best proof that Jesus is God.

This phrase is one of the few exceptions where the New Testament uses the title theos not for the Most High.

As explained above, there is an important difference between the titles “God” and theos.  With further identification in the context, theos may be translated as “God,” but theos has a range of other possible meanings, including:

False gods, for example, “there are many gods and many lords, yet for us there is but one God, the Father” (1 Co. 8:5-6);
Real things that oppose God, such as “the god of this world” (1 Cor. 4:4) and “whose god is their appetite” (Phil. 3:19);
Beings mandated by God, for instance “the LORD said to Moses, ‘See, I make you as God to Pharaoh’” (Ex. 7:1), and those “to whom the word of God came” (John 10:35), also mentioned above;
Qualitatively, e.g. “divine” or “Godlike.”  We can describe our local sport hero as a god, referring to his or her near superhuman abilities.

Given these possible meanings, and since the previous phrase and the entire New Testament makes a distinction between God and Jesus, it is proposed that the phrase “the Word was theos” does not identify Jesus as identical to “the only true God” to whom Jesus prayed (John 17:3).

One of the articles on John 1:1 argues that The Word was God is not the correct translation because theos is used in John 1:1c with a qualitative sense.  In other words, the title theos in John 1:1 describes Jesus as Godlike.  That Jesus “was theos” can therefore be understood as equivalent to the statements in Philippians 2 that Jesus exists in the form of God, has equality with God and “at the name of Jesus every knee will bow” (v10).  A similar statement is:

In Him all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily form” (Col. 2:9).

This is often used to argue that Jesus is co-equal with the Father, but it was the Father who gave “all the fullness to dwell in Him” (Col. 1:19).

It is proposed, in summary, when theos is used for the Most High, that it identifies the Invisible God, who is the uncaused Cause of the universe and everything inside of it.  But when John 1:1 applies the title “God” to Jesus, it is not a definite (God) or an indefinite (a god) use of the noun, but a qualitative use, describing Jesus as equal to the Most High in the esteem and affections of the created universe.

Is Jesus called God?

Above it is repeatedly said that the New Testament only refers to the Father as God.  However, out of the more than 1300 times that theos appears in the New Testament, there are about seven instances where theos possibly refers to Jesus.  These instances are discussed in the article Is Jesus called God?  It is shown that in every instance there is either uncertainty with respect to:

The Source Text, for instance, the manuscripts of John 1:18 with the widest distribution do not describe Jesus as theos.  See Is Jesus called God in John 1:18?
The punctuation, for instance, in Romans 9:5 it is all a matter of punctuation, and all punctuation in the Bible is interpretation.  See Is Jesus called God in Romans?
The interpretation, for instance John 1:1.  See The Word was God.

Who is Jesus?

After the wonderful Christ-events of the first century the church had to make sense of what just happened.  On the one hand, the church originated as a sect of Judaism (see Jerusalem Phase of the Early Church), with its strong emphasis on monotheism.  On the other hand, Jesus appeared as a human being, but is worshiped and declared to be “the first and the last” (Rev. 1:17; 2:8).  Various theories about Christ developed and were tolerated over the next 200 years.

But when the church, in the fourth century, became the official religion of the Roman Empire, Caesar Constantine sought to ensure unity in his empire.  To reduce conflict, he forced the church to formulate a majority position.  This was done in the year 325 in what is known as the Nicene Creed.  This creed did not yet contain the idea of a Trinity, namely three Persons in one Being.  The emphasis in this creed was to declare Jesus as God and of the same substance as the Father.  A new invention in the creed was to condemn or curse all Christians who do not agree with the creed.  This non-tolerance reflects the culture of the Roman Empire which controlled the church at the time.

After the year 325 differing views remained, and various alternative creeds were proposed.  In the year 344, for instance, the Eastern church issued the Creed of the Long Lines as an alternative to the Nicene Creed.  And in the year 381 the Nicene Creed was adjusted as shown in Wikipedia’s page on the Nicene Creed.

As said above, this website opposes this view that Jesus is of the same substance as God.  So what view of Christ does this website prefer?  It may be fair to say that this website represents the LOGOS theories that dominated in the second century.

God always works through Jesus.

This concept is critical for understanding who Jesus is:

God created and upholds all things through Jesus: All things have been created through Him (Jesus) and for Him.  He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together” (Col 1:16-17).  “There is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him” (1 Cor. 8:6).

God communicates to the universe through Jesus:  “No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him” (John 1:18).  “His name is called The Word of God” (Rev. 19:13).

God reconciled all things to Himself through Jesus:  “For it was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself” (Col. 1:19-20).  “For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim 2:5).

In other words, everything which God does, He does through His Son.

Jesus is equal to God.

In addition to what we read in Philippians 2, we read of many things that elevate Jesus to the level of God:

Jesus said, “All things that the Father has are Mine” (John 16:15).

All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me” (Matthew 28:18).

No one knows the Son except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father except the Son” (Mt. 11:27; cf. Luke 10:22).  This is an amazing statement of equality.

God not only created all things through His Son; “in Him (Jesus) all things hold together” (Col. 1:17; cf. Heb. 1:3).

Jesus is not a created being; He is the Only Begotten Son of God (John 3:18, 16).


To reconcile the competing ideas in the New Testament, this website puts forward the following hypothesis:

By begetting His Son, God made all things.  It is proposed that this is what it means when we read that God created all things through Jesus.  The implication would be that the Son always existed, for God also created time by begetting His Son.

God does not exist in time.  Rather, time, together with the space and matter of the universe, exists somewhere inside God.  God is not subject to time.

Jesus is the link between the universe and God. Through Jesus all creative and sustaining power flows from God to the universe, and through Jesus all thanksgiving and praise flow from the intelligent beings back to God.  “Every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Jesus is the God of the Old Testament.  Every visible and personal appearance of God in the Old Testament is an appearance of Jesus, in the form of God.  See Jesus in the Old Testament.

The reader may regard this hypothesis as mere speculation, and that is what it is, for these matters are necessarily beyond human understanding.  It is simply the writer’s personal present understanding of the facts that Jesus is described as distinct from God, and as subordinate to God, but is also described in the most exalted terms.  (This website does not represent the views of any particular denomination.)

To the current writer it is abundantly clear that the view that Jesus is God, co-equal to the Father, which dominated the church over the centuries, must be nuanced, for in the form in which it is often expressed, it contradicts the Bible.

As discussed above, in the centuries after Christ the church struggled to explain who Jesus is.  The current writer suspects that it is sin to go beyond what the Bible teaches about Jesus, for we are dealing with infinity, and infinity by definition will always remain an infinity, even after we have lived for a hundred thousand million years.  There are things we just cannot understand..  The efforts to explains the Father, Son and Holy Spirit as a Trinity may therefore be sin, for it goes beyond what the Bible teaches.  And my own hypothesis may be sin.

Articles in the series: Is Jesus God?

1.     The three views of the Son
2.    Jesus existed prior to His birth in the form of God.
3.    Jesus in Colossians
4.    Did Jesus empty Himself of equality with God?  Current article
5.    Who is the Word in John 1:1?
6.    Jesus is not God.
7.    God is the Head of Christ.
8.    In the Bible Jesus is called God.
9.    He is the Only Begotten Son of God.
10.  God created all things through His Son.
11.  We must worship Jesus.
12.  Jesus has equality with God.
Who is Jesus? – Summary of the series of articles
14.  Where do we find Jesus in the Old Testament?