In the Nicene Creed, homoousios meant ‘one Person’.

Purpose

The church adopted the Trinity doctrine at the conclusion of the fourth-century ‘Arian’ Controversy. However, discoveries of ancient documents and research over the past century have revealed that the traditional account of how and why the church accepted that doctrine is grossly inaccurate, casting doubt on its legitimacy. Different articles in this series discuss different critical errors in the traditional narrative.

The present article addresses the misconception that the term homoousios in the Nicene Creed always meant, as it is interpreted by the Trinity doctrine, that Father and Son are a single Being existing as two Persons. Before Nicaea, homoousios was closely linked with Sabellianism. and was adopted at Nicaea because Alexander allied with Sabellians. Consequently, at Nicaea, homoousios implied that Father and Son are one single Person.

ABSTRACT: The Nicene Creed describes the Son of God as homoousios (of the same substance) as the Father. ‘Same substance’ can either mean ‘one and the same substance’, meaning that Father and Son are a single substance or two substances of the same type. The Trinity doctrine explains homoousios as ‘one substance’. In the traditional account of the Arian Controversy, homoousios always meant that Father and Son are a single substance. However, scholars now propose that, at Nicaea, the term had a less specific meaning. The core issue in the entire Arian Controversy was how homoousios must be understood; as one single or two distinct substances:

Before Nicaea, this term was strongly associated with Sabellianism, which is the theory that Father, Son, and Spirit are one hypostasis (a single Person) with a single mind. Consequently, homoousios was understood as meaning ‘one substance’.

At Nicaea, the Sabellians dominated because they allied with Alexander and because the emperor took Alexander’s side. Consequently, they were able to cause the inclusion of the term.

After Nicaea, based on the word homoousios, Sabellians claimed that the church at Nicaea had formally adopted one-hypostasis (one Person) theology. This caused significant conflict. In the decade after Nicaea, all leading Sabellians were deposed.

After that, homoousios disappeared from the Controversy for about 20 years. The Controversy now raged around the more basic question of whether Father, Son, and Spirit are one or three hypostases (Persons).

In the 350s, Athanasius brought homoousios back into the Controversy. Since Athanasius and the West believed that Father, Son, and Spirit are one hypostasis, meaning one Person, they explained the homoousios as ‘one substance’.

In the 360s and 370s, in what is known as the Meletian Schism, Basil of Caesarea opposed Athanasius and explained homoousios as meaning three hypostases (three Persons) with the same type of substance. This theory, however, may be accused of being tritheism.

Since this is a highly controversial subject, these articles quote extensively from leading scholars. Therefore, the green blocks have been designed to sufficiently summarize the concepts in this article without the need to read all these quotes.

INTRODUCTION

Homoousios in the Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed describes the Son of God as homoousios (of the same substance) as the Father.

The Nicene Creed, as formulated at the Council of Nicaea in AD 325, which is accepted as official doctrine by most denominations, states that the Son was begotten from the substance (ousia) of the Father and that He is of the same substance (homoousios; from homós = same; ousia = substance) as the Father. (See – The Free Dictionary or GotQuestions.) Via the Latin, homoousios is often translated as ‘consubstantial’.

Means either one or two substances.

‘Same substance’ means either:
one and the same substance, i.e., that the Father and Son are a single substance, or
two substances of the same type.

‘Same substance’ (homoousios) has two possible meanings because the word “same” has two possible meanings. When I say that John and I drive the same car, it can mean that we drive one and the same car or two different cars of the same type. Similarly, ‘same substance’ can mean:

One substance – This is called numerical sameness because there is only one. Father and Son are a single undivided substance (one Being).

Two distinct substances of the same type – This is qualitative or generic sameness. Like two human beings are of the ‘same substance’, Father and Son are two distinct substances (Beings).

Since ‘one substance’ is expressed by the more specific terms ‘monoousios’, the primary meaning of ‘homoousios’ is “two distinct substances of the same type”. 1“According to an anonymous Expositio fidei, in the fourth century the Sabellians made use of the more specific term monoousios, no longer of homoousios, the word which in the meanwhile had become the flag of the Nicene party.” (Ps.-Athanasius, Exp. fid. 2 (PG 25, 204 A))

Scholars also refer to the two alternative meanings as ‘unity’ versus ‘equality’. For example:

“As it stands, the homoousios can be read either as an affirmation of the divine unity or as an affirmation of the equal deity.’” (Hanson, p. 170-1)

One theological objection to the “equal deity” option is that it presents two Gods; two First Principles (two Beings who exist without cause and caused all else to exist). For a further discussion of the different meanings of “same,” see Right Reason or Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Arius did not accept the term homoousios. For him, the Son’s substance is different from the Father’s:

“No doubt he (Arius) believed that the Father and the Son were of unlike substance, but he did not say so directly.” (Hanson, p. 187)

Arius is what later in the fourth century became known as a Heter-ousian (different substance).

Means ‘one substance’ in the Trinity Doctrine.

The Trinity doctrine explains homoousios as ‘one substance’.

The traditional Trinity doctrine teaches that the three Persons (hypostases) are one Being. Consequently, it interprets homoousios as ‘one substance’. For example:

“The champions of the Nicene faith … developed a doctrine of God as a Trinity, as one substance or ousia who existed as three hypostases, three distinct realities or entities (I refrain from using the misleading word’ Person’), three ways of being or modes of existing as God.” (Hanson Lecture)

In this quote, Hanson says the word ‘Person’ is misleading. The reason is that, in normal English, each ‘person’ has his own mind. In contrast, in the traditional Trinity doctrine, Father, Son, and Spirit share a single mind because they are one Being. (See here) As quoted, rather than the word ‘Person’, Hanson prefers to explain the hypostases in the Trinity doctrine as three “modes of existing as God,” which sounds like Modalism.

Did not mean ‘one substance’ at Nicaea.

In the traditional account of the Arian Controversy, homoousios always meant that Father and Son are a single substance. However, scholars now propose that, at Nicaea, the term had a less specific meaning.

In the traditional account of the Arian Controversy, the Trinity doctrine has existed from the beginning of that controversy. It would follow that homoousios always meant that Father and Son are a single substance (Being), which means that the Son is co-equal, co-eternal, and co-immutable with the Father.

However, recent scholarship agrees that, at Nicaea, homoousios did not mean one substance:

“The Nicene Creed does not expressly assert the singleness or numerical unity of the divine essence.” 2Philip Schaff. History of the Church volume 3. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1981 edition. pp.672-673.

“We can therefore be pretty sure that homoousios was not intended to express the numerical identity of the Father and the Son.” (Hanson, p. 202)

Scholars conclude now that homousios must NOT be interpreted EITHER numerically or qualitatively:

“Recent studies on the word homoousios have tended to show, not that it can be reduced to two meanings, one identifying two ousiai as one, and the other conveying a ‘generic’ sense of ‘God-stuff’ (Loofs), but that it was of a much looser, more flexible, indeed less specific and therefore less controversial significance.” (Hanson, p. 170) 3“It was intended to have a looser, more ambiguous sense than has in the past history of scholarship been attached to it.” (Hanson, p. 202)

“Studor … notes that the term homoousios is not used with precision at Nicaea and that later arguments for homoousios always involve constructing accounts of its meaning.” (Ayres, p. 238)

Hanson agrees with Loofs’ statement that “the meaning of homoousios was so fluid that we cannot determine its meaning from its appearance in N alone.” (Hanson, p. 192)

This was the Core Issue in the Controversy.

Contrary to the usual explanation, the core issue in the Arian Controversy was not whether Jesus is God. The core issue was whether homoousios must be understood as one single or two distinct substances. In different words, the core issue was whether the Son is part of the Father or whether He is a distinct Person with a distinct mind. (See here.)

These two possible meanings of homoousios relate to the core issue in the Arian Controversy. Contrary to the usual explanation, the core issue was not whether Jesus is God. 4“It is misleading to assume that these controversies were about ‘the divinity of Christ’” (LA, 14). The core issue was whether the Son is part of the Father or whether He is a distinct Person with a distinct mind. In the words used during the fourth century, the core issue was whether Father, Son, and Spirit are one hypostasis (one Person with one mind) or three hypostases:

In one-hypostasis theologies, such as Sabellianism and the theology of Alexander and Athanasius, the Son is not a distinct Person. Consequently, homoousios means ‘one substance’.

In three-hypostases theologies, such as those taught by Origen, the so-called Arians,5There was no such thing as an Arian. and Basil of Caesarea, the Son is a distinct hypostasis (Person). While the anti-Nicenes rejected the term homoousios, Basil accepted it and interpreted it as two substances of the same type.

For more details, see – What was the real main issue in the Arian Controversy?

This article analyses what homoousios meant (1) before, (2) during, and (3) after Nicaea.

AUTHORS CITED

The conclusions in this article may seem heterodox but, based on discoveries and research over the past 100 years, leading scholars explain the fourth-century Arian Controversy very differently from scholars in preceding centuries.

This article relies mainly on the following authors:

Hanson, Bishop RPC
The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God –

The Arian Controversy 318-381, 1988

Williams, Archbishop Rowan
Arius: Heresy and Tradition, 2002/1987

Ayres, Lewis
Nicaea and its legacy, 2004

Ayres is a Professor of Catholic and Historical Theology

Beatrice = An article by Pier Franco Beatrice; Professor of Early Christian Literature at the University of Padua, Italy
The word “homoousios” from Hellenism to Christianity.)

The conclusions in this article may seem heterodox but these are leading scholars on the fourth-century Arian Controversy. Over the last hundred years, certain ancient documents have become more readily available. For example:

“In the first few decades of the present (20th) century … seminally important work was … done in the sorting-out of the chronology of the controversy, and in the isolation of a hard core of reliable primary documents.” (Williams, p. 11-12)

Consequently, the scholarly view of the Controversy has changed dramatically. “The four decades since 1960 have produced much revisionary scholarship on the Trinitarian and Christological disputes of the fourth century.” (Ayres, p. 11) Hanson even describes the traditional account of the Arian Controversy as a complete travesty.

I do not study the primary sources but I study these secondary sources; people who have studied the primary sources for decades and who are regarded as leaders in this field. Therefore, I quote extensively from them.

BEFORE NICAEA

Pre-Christian uses

Greek philosophy and Egyptian paganism used the term homoousios for distinct substances. 

Aristotle was known for using the term οὐσία (ousia) to describe his philosophical concept of Primary Substances. (Beatrice)

“In the theological language of Egyptian paganism the word homoousios meant that the Nous-Father and the Logos-Son, who are two distinct beings, share the same perfection of the divine nature.” (Beatrice) In other words, it did not mean ‘one substance.

These pre-Christian uses of the term are not important for deciding how Christians used it. However, Beatrice argues that Emperor Constantine had a connection with Egyptian paganism, and that at least partly explains his insistence on the term at Nicaea, as discussed below.

The Bible does not mention the term.

The Bible never talks about God’s substance and never says that the Son is homoousios with the Father.

Gnostics – of a similar kind

The second-century Gnostics used the word homoousios to describe distinct beings as of the same kind.

The second-century Gnostics used the word homoousios (Beatrice) but they were not real Christians and did not use the term to describe Christ.6“Gnosticism is a very general term applied to a wide variety of groups that would have called themselves Christian but who held to beliefs very different than anything we know as Christian today.” (Pavao, Paul. Decoding Nicea (p. 18). Kindle Edition.)

They used homoousios to say that lower deities are of ‘a similar kind’ as the highest deity from whom they emanated:

“The term was adopted in the second century by Gnostics, probably to indicate ‘same ontological status’ or ‘of a similar kind’.” (Ayres, p. 93)

It meant, “belonging to the same order of being.” (Hanson, p. 191) They did not use the word to mean “identity, nor even equality.” (Hanson, p. 191)

In other words, they did not use the term to say that two beings are one being or that two beings have the exact same type of substance.

Tertullian – implied ‘one substance’

Tertullian (155-220), writing in Latin, nowhere uses any term corresponding exactly to the Greek word homoousios. However, in his theology, Father and Son are a single substance and a single hypostasis. That implies not only homoousios (same substance) but, more specifically, ‘one substance’.

Although he did not use a term equivalent to homoousios, to say the Father and Son are one hypostasis is an even stronger statement. It  (See here for more on Tertullian’s theology)

Tertullian, “writing in Latin, nowhere uses any term corresponding to homoousios.” (Hanson, p. 190)

He did use the term “substance.” For him, God has a body (is a substance) and the Son is part of God’s substance:

“Tertullian … had already used the Latin word substantia (substance) of God … For him God … had a body … It was possible for Tertullian to think of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit sharing this substance.” (Hanson, p. 184)

He also used the term “unius substantiate” which means, in his theology, ‘one hypostasis’:

He used “the expression unius substantiae.” “This has led some scholars to see Tertullian as an exponent of Nicene orthodoxy before Nicaea … But this is a far from plausible theory.” (Hanson, p. 184) “The word in Greek translation of Tertullian’s una substantia would not be the word homoousios but mia hypostasis (one hypostasis).” (Hanson, p. 193)

Although he did not use a term equivalent to homoousios, to say the Father and Son are one hypostasis is an even stronger statement. It implies not only homoousios (same substance) but, more specifically, ‘one substance’. (See here for more on Tertullian’s theology)

Sabellius – one hypostasis

Sabellius did indeed use the term and he used it to say that Father and Son are a single hypostasis. In other words, he used the term not only to mean ‘same substance’ but, specifically, ‘one substance’.

Sabellianism is named after Sabellius (fl. ca. 215); a theologian from the early 3rd century. He used the term homoousios to say that Father and Son are a single hypostasis (Person):

According to Basil of Caesarea, “Sabellius used it (homoousios) … in rejecting the distinction of hypostases” (Hanson, p. 192); “in the sense of numerical sameness” (Prof Ninan).

In other words, he used the term not only to mean ‘same substance’ but, specifically, ‘one substance’.

As discussed here, according to Von Mosheim, for Sabellius, the Father, the Son, and the Spirit are three parts of God:

“He considered the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, as being three portions of the divine nature.” (Von Mosheim J.L. p220)

By the time of the Nicene Council, the church had already formally rejected Sabellianism.

Origen did not use the term.

Origen did not use the term. In opposition to Tertullian and Sabellius, he believed that Father, Son, and Spirit are three hypostases, meaning three distinct substances.

In opposition to Tertullian and Sabellius, “he (Origen) taught that there were three hypostases within the Godhead.” (Hanson, p. 184)

It is sometimes claimed that Origen (c. 185 – c. 253) described the Son as homoousios. If he did accept homoousios, he would have understood that to mean the same type of substance. But he did not use the term:

“Origen may have rejected the term.” (Ayres, p. 92)

“Origen certainly did not apply the word homoousios to the Son and did not teach that the Son is ‘from the ousia’ of the Father.” (Hanson, p. 185)

The word “consubstantial … would have suggested to him that the Father and the Son were of the same material, an idea which he was anxious to avoid.” (Hanson, p. 68)

“There is one celebrated fragment … where Origen appears to sanction the use of homoousios. … But in its present form, this seems too closely bound to the specific interests of the post-Nicene period … to come directly from Pamphilus, let alone Origen.” (Williams, p. 132-3) “One famous passage in which he seems to use the term homoousios … may have been adulterated by later writers.” (Ayres, p. 24)

The Two Dionysii disagreed.

Around the year 260, the bishops of Rome and Alexandria; both named Dionysius, disagreed about the term. Some Sabellians in Libya as well as Dionysius of Rome believed in one hypostasis and used homoousios to say that. In contrast, Dionysius of Alexandria believed in three hypostases and, initially, denied the term. He later accepted it but only after the bishop of Rome applied pressure on him and only in a general sense of meaning ‘the same type of substance’.

“Some local Sabellians” described the Son as homoousios with the Father (Ayres, p. 94).

“Stead … believes … it was the people in Libya criticized by Dionysius of Alexandria who had introduced the term. Simonetti agrees that it was not Dionysius of Rome who first used the word homoousios in the interchange.” (Hanson, p. 193)

For Sabellians, the Father and Son are a single hypostasis (one Person).

Dionysius of Alexandria, overseeing the church in Libya, initially rejected the term due to its association with Sabellianism.

“It seems … likely that Dionysius of Alexandria, in a campaign against some local Sabellians, had denied the term.” (Ayres, p. 94)

According to Basil of Caesarea, “Dionysius of Alexandria … sometimes rejected homoousios because Sabellius used it … in rejecting the distinction of hypostases.” (Hanson, p. 192)

The Libyan Sabellians complained to the bishop of Rome (Hanson, p. 191) who also had accepted the term homoousios and who, similar to the Sabellians, taught that Father and Son are a single hypostasis (Person):

“Dionysius of Rome … (also) claimed that Father and Son were homoousios.” (Ayres, p. 94)

“Dionysius of Rome … found homoousios acceptable but could not tolerate a division of the Godhead into three hypostases.” (Hanson, p. 192, quoting Loofs)

“His doctrine could only with difficulty be distinguished from that of Sabellius!” (Hanson, p. 193)

Dionysius of Alexandria was “persuaded by his namesake of Rome to accept (the term)” (Ayres, p. 94) but he “only adopted it with reluctance” (Hanson, p. 193) and only “in a general sense, meaning ‘of similar nature, ‘of similar kind’” (Hanson, p. 192). Or “belonging to the same class” (Ayres, p. 94), “meaning that both had the same kind of nature.” (Hanson, p. 193) This “did not at all exclude relationships between realities that were hierarchically distinct in other ways.” (Ayres, p. 94-95) In other words, for him, the term did not mean that Father and Son are one and the same or even that they are equal. In his view, Father and Son were two distinct hypostases.

In 268, the church rejected homoousios.

More or less at the same time, Paul of Samosata used the term to say that Father and Son are a single substance, a single hypostasis or Person. But, in the year 268, a council at Antioch condemned both Paul and the term homoousios.

A few years later, “the council that deposed Paul of Samosata in 268 condemned the use of homoousios.” (Ayres, p. 94; cf. Hanson, p. 193-194) Paul used this term to describe Father and Son as a single hypostasis (Person):

“In using the expression ‘of one substance’, Paul declared that Father and Son were a solitary unit;” “a primitive undifferentiated unity.” (Williams, p. 159-160)

According to Hilary, “Our fathers (the 268-council) … repudiated homoousion” because “the word to them spelt Sabellianism.” (Hanson, p. 194)

“The condemnation of homoousios by this well-known council” caused “considerable embarrassment to those theologians who wanted to defend its inclusion in an official doctrinal statement in the next century.” (Ayres, p. 94; cf. Hanson, p. 195)

Conclusion – a Sabellian term

In conclusion, before Nicaea, homoousios was preferred only by Sabellians, including Sabellius himself, the Libyan Sabellians, Dionysius of Rome, and Paul of Samosata. For them, Father and Son are a single Person with a single mind.

There are different forms of one-hypostasis theology, such as:

Technically, Sabellianism is one of the one-hypostasis theologies but the term is often used to refer to all one-hypostasis theologies. Used in that way, we can say that only Sabellians used the term:

“The word homoousios, at its first appearance in the middle of the third century, was therefore clearly connected with the theology of a Sabellian or monarchian tendency.” (P.F. Beatrice)

“The word homousios had not had … a very happy history. It was probably rejected by the Council of Antioch, and was suspected of being open to a Sabellian meaning. It was accepted by the heretic Paul of Samosata and this rendered it very offensive to many in the Asiatic Churches.” (Philip Schaff)

The only non-Sabellian who accepted the term was Dionysius of Alexandria, but he accepted it reluctantly and only as meaning that the Father and Son are two distinct substances of the same type.

“We can detect no Greek-speaking writer before Nicaea who unreservedly supports homoousion as applied to the Son.” (Hanson, p. 169)

AT NICAEA

A Surprising Innovation

The term homoousios was a surprising innovation in the Nicene Creed. It is not to be found in the Holy Scripture, was borrowed from pagan philosophy, was not used in any previous creed, was not part of the standard Christian language of the day, and was already condemned as associated with the heresy of Sabellianism at an important church council 57 years earlier. Furthermore, ‘same substance’ implies that God has a body. For these reasons, the term homoousios seemed especially objectionable to the delegates at Nicaea, the vast majority of whom were from the East. Some powerful force must have been working to ensure its inclusion in the Creed.

Not Biblical

The Bible never says anything about God’s substance:

The term homoousios “is not to be found in the Holy Scripture” (P.F. Beatrice).

“Nobody could pretend that it was Scriptural” (Hanson, p. 167).

Borrowed from pagan philosophy:

“The pro-Nicenes are at their worst, their most grotesque, when they try to show that the new terms borrowed from the pagan philosophy of the day were really to be found in Scripture.” (Hanson, p. 846)

Not Traditional Language

It was not part of the standard Christian language of the day. The term did not appear in any precious creed; not even in the draft creed prepared only a few months before Nicaea:

“To say that the Son was ‘of the substance’ of the Father, and that he was ‘consubstantial’ with him were certainly startling innovations. Nothing comparable to this had been said in any creed or profession of faith before.” (Hanson, p. 166-7)

Rowan Williams described it as “the radical words of Nicaea” (Williams, p. 236) and “conceptual innovation” (Williams, p. 234-5), in contrast to “the lost innocence of pre-Nicene trinitarian language” (p. 234-5). Consequently, anti-Nicenes objected that these words are “untraditional.” (Williams, p. 234-5)

A meeting was held in Antioch a few months before the Nicene Council which formulated a draft creed. “This text makes no use of the ousia language that we see in Nicaea’s creed.” (Ayres, p. 51)

“The word homoousios is not to be found in the extant writings of Alexander of Alexandria.” (Beatrice“We can detect no Greek-speaking writer before Nicaea who unreservedly supports homoousion as applied to the Son.” (Hanson, p. 169)

Already condemned as Sabellian.

As discussed above, before Nicaea, the term was closely associated with Sabellianism and was, for that reason, already condemned in 268 at a Council in Antioch (Hanson, p. 198), the headquarters of the entire church at the time.

“It was impossible to rid the term in the minds of many of Sabellian, if not Gnostic associations.” (Hanson, p. 437)

The Homoiousians rejected “homoousios as leading to Sabellianism.” (Hanson, p. 439) “To them an acceptance of homoousios … would naturally appear to involve them in pure indiscriminate Sabellianism.” (Hanson, p. 440)

Athanasius wrote that their objection to the term “homoousios” was that it was considered to be “un-Scriptural, suspicious, and of a Sabellian tendency.” 7Athanasius (1911), “In Controversy With the Arians”, Select Treatises, Newman, John Henry Cardinal trans, Longmans, Green, & Co, p. 124, footn

Implies God has a body

The Eusebians were uncomfortable with the term ‘same substance’ because they understood the term as saying that God is material:

“Williams points out that the objection based on the Manichean tendency of the word assumed that it implied that the Son was a component or extension of God, thus representing God as composite, perhaps as material, and suggesting that there is a kind of common ‘God-stuff’ shared by Father and Son.” (Hanson, p. 197)

The Eusebians argued that we should not understand the terms “Father,” “Son,” and “begotten” in a literal, material sense, as if the Son was begotten like humans are by breaking off a part of the parent.

Why was it included?

The vast majority of bishops at Nicaea were from the East8“Around 250–300 attended, drawn almost entirely from the eastern half of the empire.” (Ayres, p. 19) and, for the reasons above, the term homoousios “seemed especially objectionable to many bishops and theologians of the East.” 9Bernard Lohse, A Short History of Christian Doctrine, 1966, p51-53  10“The Origenists had considerable reservation about homoousios and the other phrases containing the term ousios (substance).” (Erickson) “A majority opposed the Nicene creed. The majority who opposed the creed were not aligned with Arius!” (Bible.ca11Eusebius accepted homoousion with “obvious reluctance.” (Hanson, p. 165) Given these strong objections, powerful forces must have been working to ensure its inclusion in the Creed.

The Emperor enforced the term.

The article on the Nicene Council is recommended for pre-reading.

The Emperors determined Church Doctrine.

That powerful force was the emperor. The Nicene Council, like all general councils during the fourth century, was called and dominated by the emperor. Constantine ensured that the council reached the decision he thought best. In the Christian Roman Empire, the emperors were the final arbiters in doctrinal disputes and they used those general councils, misleadingly called ecumenical councils, to establish the church’s doctrine according to their preferences. 

This council was not called by the church but by the emperor. It was his meeting. It was not his goal to find the truth but to prevent this dispute from causing division in his empire:

“The history of the period shows time and time again that … the general council was the very invention and creation of the Emperor. General councils … were the children of imperial policy and the Emperor was expected to dominate and control them.” (Hanson, p. 855)

Furthermore, as astounding as it might sound to people who grew up in a culture of separation of church and state, in the fourth century, the emperor was the final judge in Christian doctrinal disputes:

“If we ask the question, what was considered to constitute the ultimate authority in doctrine during the period reviewed in these pages, there can be only one answer. The will of the Emperor was the final authority.” (Hanson, p. 849)

Constantine enforced the term.

The emperor not only proposed but used his influence to enforce the inclusion of the term. “Constantine took part in the Council of Nicaea and ensured that it reached the kind of conclusion which he thought best.” (Hanson, p. 850)

He proposed the term:

The Emperor accepted Eusebius’ creed “and he advised all present to agree to it … with the insertion of the single word ‘consubstantial.’” (Beatrice) (See also – Eusebius’ letter.)

“The decisive catchword of the Nicene confession, namely, homoousios, comes from … the emperor himself.” 12Bernard Lohse, in ‘A Short History of Christian Doctrine’, 1966, p51-53 13“Constantine did put forth the Nicene creed term ‘homoousios’.” “The emperor favored the inclusion of the word homoousios.” (Millard J. Erickson, God in Three Persons, p82-85)

He enforced the term:

“The Origenists had considerable reservation about homoousios and the other phrases containing the term ousios (substance), but the emperor exerted considerable influence. Consequently, the statement was approved.” (Erickson) 14Millard J. Erickson, God in Three Persons, p82-85

“The emperor “himself proposed and insisted on the word homoousios.” (Erickson, Millard J, God in Three Persons, p82-85)

Constantine “pressed for its inclusion.” (Hanson, p. 211)

“’Homoousios’ and ‘from the essence of the Father’ were added to the creed by Constantine himself, bearing witness to the extent of his influence at the council.” 15Jörg Ulrich. Nicaea and the West. Vigiliae Christianae 51, no. 1 (1997): 10-24. 15. 16“The concept put into the creed by Constantine himself, the homoousios. ” (Bernard Lohse, A Short History of Christian Doctrine, 1966, p51-53) 17Constantine “himself … insisted upon the word homoousia being included in the creed.” (Jörg Ulrich. “Nicaea and the West.” Vigiliae Christianae 51, no. 1 (1997) p 15.) 

Constantine explained the term.

One of the major objections was that the phrases ‘homoousios’ and ‘begotten from the substance of God’ sound as if God has a body and as if the Son was begotten like humans are through a material, corporeal process. Constantine insisted that the term has no material connotations. The fact that the council allowed Constantine to explain the term’s meaning and that the delegates had to accept his explanation also illustrated his domination of the council.

Emperor Constantine not only imposed, by his authority, the inclusion of the word homoousios; he also dared to explain what the word meant to that assembly of the church’s leading theologians. 18Eusebius of Caesarea “gives the impression throughout this letter that Constantine took the initiative in all the matters that the letter deals with, apparently regarding himself as qualified to deal with any discussion about the profound questions raised by the Christian doctrine of God.” (Hanson, p. 160) Constantine did his best “to placate Eusebians” (Ayres, p. 91) to enable them to accept the term:

“It seems … that Constantine interceded on behalf of those unhappy with homoousios, insisting on the importance of understanding the term without material connotation.” (Ayres, p. 96)

“Eusebius … writes that Constantine himself spoke, endorsing the term homoousios, but insisting that it did not imply any material division in God.” (Ayres, p. 90-91) 19“Eusebius directly ascribes to Constantine only an emphasis on understanding homoousios without reference to material division or the sorts of change associated with corporeal existence.” (Ayres, p. 96) 20“This term, however, upon which Constantine insisted, was given a special turn of meaning here. What was being affirmed and insisted upon was that the Son is different, utterly different, from any of the created beings. He is not out of any other substance, but out of the Father.” (Erickson, Millard J, God in Three Persons, p82-85)

The emperor also explained the related phrase, ‘from the substance of the Father’ as merely saying that the Son was truly from the Father. With that non-literal explanation of the contentious terms, all delegates could agree.

“The phrase ‘from the ousia of the Father’ also had a complex history of use before Nicaea, much of which revolved around its seemingly materialistic or inappropriately genetic implications. Origen treats this phrase as implying something like a human birth and thus a materialistic understanding of divine being. … Eusebius of Caesarea, also writing before Nicaea, demonstrates similar worries that the phrase implies a materialistic diminution of the Father’s being in the generation of the Son.” (Ayres, p. 97)

“All the theologians … probably saw homoousios as expanding on and secondary to the phrase ‘from the ousia of the Father’. … Eusebius tells us that once he had been assured that this phrase (from the ousia of the Father) served only to indicate that the Son was truly from the Father he could agree even to homoousios.” (Ayres, p. 96) 21“Eusebius also reports that he himself secured clarity that the phrase ‘from the essence of the Father’ did not mean ‘is part of the Father’s substance’.” (Ayres, p. 90-91)

Following Eusebius’ lead, the Eusebians accepted Constantine’s explanation. So, these unfamiliar phrases were included in the Creed due to the emperor’s domination of the council. For more detail, see the discussion of Eusebius’ letter.

Because the Sabellians preferred the term.

This section explains why Constantine insisted on homoousios:

Another article argues that Constantine found the term agreeable because he was familiar with it through his contact with Egyptian paganism. Even if that was true, he would not have proposed the term without support from at least some delegates.

(1) The emperor took Alexander’s side in his dispute with Arius.

“Constantine had taken Alexander’s part.” (Ayres, p. 89)

“This imperial pressure coupled with the role of his advisers in broadly supporting the agenda of Alexander must have been a powerful force.” (Ayres, p. 89)

(2) Alexander believed in one hypostasis, meaning that Father, Son, and Spirit are a single Person with a single mind.

See here for a detailed discussion. Some brief examples:

“The fragments of Eustathius that survive present a doctrine that is close to Marcellus, and to Alexander and Athanasius. Eustathius insists there is only one hypostasis.“ (Ayres, p. 69)

Alexander described the Son as “idios to (a property or quality of) the Father (which) is a Sabellian statement.” (Hanson, p. 92)

(3) But the one-hypostasis theologians were in the minority. The vast majority of the delegates were from the East and, following Origen, believed in three hypostases, meaning the Father, Son, and Spirit are three Beings with three distinct minds. (See here.) 

For example, the Dedication Creed declared a belief in three hypostases. 

“The great majority of the Eastern clergy (at Nicaea) were ultimately disciples of Origen.” 22Frend, WHC: The Rise of Christianity As stated above, Origen believed in three hypostases.

“Around 250–300 attended, drawn almost entirely from the eastern half of the empire.” (Ayres, p. 19)

“The Westerners at the Council (of Nicaea) represented a tiny minority.” (Hanson, p. 170)

(4) Since the three-hypostasis view was in the majority, Alexander allied with the other one-hypostasis theologians in the council; the Sabellians Eustathius and Marcellus, and their supporters.

He allied with Eustathius and Marcellus:

“Eustathius and Marcellus … certainly met at Nicaea and no doubt were there able to join forces with Alexander of Alexandria and Ossius.” (Hanson, p. 234)

“Marcellus, Eustathius and Alexander were able to make common cause against the Eusebians.” (Ayres, p. 69)

Eustathius and Marcellus were Sabellians:

Eustathius attended the Nicene Council (Hanson, p. 208) but was deposed soon after Nicaea (“in 330 or 331”) (Hanson, p. 210) “primarily for the heresy of Sabellianism” (Hanson, p. 211).

“Marcellus of Ancyra had produced a theology … which could quite properly be called Sabellian.” (Hanson, p. ix) Marcellus of Ancyra “cannot be acquitted of Sabellianism” (Hanson’s Lecture).

(5) For these reasons, the Sabellians were influential at the council:

“Eustathius of Antioch and Marcellus … Both were influential at the council.” (Ayres, p. 99)

“Marcellus of Ancyra … had been an important figure at the council and may have significantly influenced its wording.” (Ayres, p. 431)

“Eustathius of Antioch, Marcellus of Ancyra, and Alexander must all have been key players in the discussions.” (Ayres, p. 89)

(6) Therefore, Constantine insisted on homoousios, not because Alexander preferred it, but because the Sabellians preferred the term.

Alexander did not prefer the term.

Just a few months earlier, the draft statement prepared by the pro-Alexander council at Antioch did not mention ousia or homoousios:

“Alexander indeed seems to be avoiding homoousios.” (Hanson, p. 139)

“Alexander in his extant utterances never uses homoousios, though there are several places where its application to the Son would have been apt.” (Hanson, p. 140)

The Sabellians proposed homoousios.

“Marcellus and Eustathius also seem likely to have endorsed homoousios because of the notion of shared being.” (Ayres, p. 95) “Shared being” can be understood as ‘one Person’.

Constantine insisted on homousios because, firstly, as explained here, he knew the term from his association with Egyptian paganism and, secondly, because the Sabellians preferred it:

“Once he (Constantine) discovered that the Eustathians [the Sabellians] … were in favour of it (homoousios) … he pressed for its inclusion.” (Hanson, p. 211)

(7) Alexander accepted the term because, as a one-hypostasis theologian, he might have found the term agreeable and because he needed the support of the Sabellians

“Simonetti estimates the Nicene Council as a temporary alliance for the defeat of Arianism between the tradition of Alexandria led by Alexander and ‘Asiatic’ circles (i.e. Eustathius, Marcellus) whose thought was at the opposite pole to that of Arius. … Alexander … accepted virtual Sabellianism in order to ensure the defeat of Arianism.” (Hanson, p. 171)23Eusebius of Caesarea put forward a creed that was “revised” by “the party of Alexander,” which was “favored by the emperor,” who “favored the inclusion of the word homoousios.” (Erickson)

(8) As explained above, the Eusebians reluctantly accepted the term due to the emperor’s strong influence on the council, and based on the emperor’s non-material explanation of the term.

The Creed was the work of a Minority.

In conclusion, the emperor’s authority allowed the one-hypostasis minority to include the term homoousios in the Creed, despite the Sabellian history of the term and despite the objections raised by the majority.

“The decisions of Nicaea were really the work of a minority.” 24Bettenson, Documents of the Christian Church, 2nd Ed 1963, p 41

The reformed website Bible.ca states: “We will grant … that a majority opposed the Nicene creed. … The majority who opposed the creed were not aligned with Arius!”

Ossius of Cordova

Ossius was the emperor’s religious advisor. Constantine also appointed him as chair of the Nicene Council “as the Emperor’s representative” (Hanson, p. 154) and as Constantine’s “agent.” (Hanson, p. 190)

His humble position in the church, as bishop of the small city of Cordova, did not qualify him as chair of that assembly.

“Ossius … represented the policy of Constantine” (Hanson, p. 170)

He also believed in one hypostasis, similar to Alexander and the Sabellians.

“Ossius evidently believed that God is a single hypostasis.” (Hanson, p. 870) For example, eighteen years later, in 343, Ossius helped to compose another creed (at Serdica) (Hanson, p. 201) which had “the most alarmingly Sabellian complexion.” (Hanson, p. xix) That manifesto explicitly confesses a single hypostasis.

In all probability, Ossius was the one who advised Constantine to take Alexander’s part.

The Anathema confirms Sabellian domination.

Another indication of Sabellian domination is the anathema in the creed against all “who assert that the Son of God is of a different hypostasis or substance.” This seems to say that Father and Son are a single hypostasis (Person), which is the hallmark of Sabellianism.

“If we are to take the creed N at its face value, the theology of Eustathius and Marcellus was the theology which triumphed at Nicaea. That creed admits the possibility of only one ousia and one hypostasis. This was the hallmark of the theology of these two men.” (Hanson, p. 235)

“The Creed of Nicaea of 325 … ultimately confounded the confusion because its use of the words ousia and hypostasis was so ambiguous as to suggest that the Fathers of Nicaea had fallen into Sabellianism, a view recognized as a heresy even at that period.” (Hanson’s Lecture)

See here for a further discussion of that anathema.

All understood the term as Sabellian.

Given these facts, how did the delegates to the Council understand the term?

Sabellians intended ‘One Person’.

The Sabellians understood homoousios as saying that the Father and Son are a single hypostasis (one Person).

For example:

“Marcellus and Eustathius also seem likely to have endorsed homoousios because of the notion of shared being that was an accepted part of its semantic range, but not because they thought it implied two distinct eternally co-ordinate realities.” (Ayres, p. 95-96) [“Co-ordinate” here means two distinct but more or less equal entities.]

“It is unlikely that Alexander or Ossius would have chosen the term intending a simple co-ordinate sense.” (Ayres, p. 95) 

Consequently, as discussed below, after Nicaea, the Sabellians claimed the Creed as support for their doctrine:

“In the controversies which erupted over Eustathius of Antioch and Marcellus after Nicaea, both thought their theologies faithful to Nicaea—and they had good grounds for so assuming. Both were influential at the council, and Nicaea’s lapidary formulations were never intended to rule out their theological idiosyncrasies.” (Ayres, p. 99)

Eusebians also understood it as Sabellian.

The majority was forced to accept the term and agreed to the Creed because they had accepted the emperor’s explanation that homoousios simply means that the Son is truly from the Father. However, in reality, they knew this term implies Sabellianism.

“Eusebius tells us that once he had been assured that this phrase served only to indicate that the Son was truly from the Father he could agree even to homoousios.” (Ayres, p. 96)

With that understanding, it does not mean that Father and Son are one Person or even that they are equal. Like Dionysius of Alexandria, the Eusebians at Nicaea were forced to accept the term but accepted it only with a generic meaning.

However, after Nicaea, that same church mainstream opposed the Creed because they thought it implied Sabellianism. For example:

“It was impossible to rid the term in the minds of many of Sabellian, if not Gnostic associations.” (Hanson, p. 437)

“We will grant … that a majority opposed the Nicene creed. But the opposition was over the use of specific words … they felt the creed could lend support to Sabellianism.” (Bible.ca)

“The language of that creed seemed to offer no prophylactic (prevention) against Marcellan doctrine, and increasingly came to be seen as implying such doctrine.” (Ayres, p. 96, 97)

“To many the creed seemed strongly to favour the unitarian tendency among these existing trajectories.” (Ayres, p. 431)25The term “unitarian” refers to Sabellianism. For example: “A great deal of controversy was caused in the years after the council by some supporters of Nicaea whose theology had strongly unitarian tendencies. Chief among these was Marcellus of Ancyra.” (Ayres, p. 431)

So, the majority also really understood the term as Sabellian.

Was Nicaea a Sabellian victory?

Our authors say that Nicaea was a drawn battle between the Sabellian one-hypostasis theology and the Eusebian three-hypostases theology. However, in the view of this article, since homoousios was known to be a Sabellian term and given the anathema, it was a Sabellian victory.

“The ‘Asiatics’ (i.e. Eustathius, Marcellus) … were able to include in N a hint of opposition to the three hypostases theory.” (Hanson, p. 171, quoting Simonetti)

It is not “an openly Sabellian creed.” “It is going too far to say that N is a clearly Sabellian document. … It is exceeding the evidence to represent the Council as a total victory for the anti-Origenist opponents of the doctrine of three hypostases. It was more like a drawn battle.” (Hanson, p. 172) Ayres says that his conclusions are close to Hanson’s. (Ayres, p. 92)

AFTER NICAEA

Sabellianism and homoousios were rejected.

Nicaea brought an end to the dispute around Arius’ theology. After Nicaea, Arius was no longer an issue. 

“Arius’ own theology is of little importance in understanding the major debates of the rest of the century.” (Ayres, p. 56-57) (For detail, see – Arius.)

Alexander died soon after Nicaea. He was not the focus of the dispute after Nicaea.

“The Index to the Festal Letters of Athanasius dates the death of Alexander firmly to April 27th, 328.” (Hanson, p. 175)[/mfn] 

However, the inclusion in the Creed of terms borrowed from Greek philosophy caused a new controversy which continued for a few years after Nicaea. This conflict was specifically between the Eusebian majority and the Sabellians. It resulted in the exile of all leading Sabellians.

“Within ten years of the Council of Nicaea all the leading supporters of the creed of that Council had been deposed or disgraced or exiled – Athanasius, Eustathius and Marcellus, and with them a large number of other bishops who are presumed to have belonged to the same school of thought.” (Hanson, p. 274)

“Eustathius lost this battle and was deposed at some point between 326 and 331.” (Ayres, p. 101)

“The new synod met in the summer of 336 and deposed Marcellus for holding the heresy of Paul of Samosata.” (Williams, p. 80)

This conflict was specifically about the meaning of the term homoousios. The Sabellians claimed that it supports their theology, namely, that the Father and Son are a single Person so that the Son does not have a real distinct existence.

As an example, the following is one event during that period “probably in 326 or 327:” (Ayres, p. 101)

“The fifth-century ecclesiastical historian Sozomen reports a dispute immediately after the council, focused not on Arius, but … concerning the precise meaning of the term homoousios.

Some [must be the Eusebians] thought this term … implied the non-existence of the Son of God; and that it involved the error of Montanus and Sabellius. …

Eustathius accused Eusebius [of Caesarea] of altering the doctrines ratified by the council of Nicaea, while the latter declared that he approved of all the Nicaean doctrines, and reproached Eustathius for cleaving to the heresy of Sabellius.” (Ayres, p. 101)26“This event was only one part of the conflict that now began.” (Ayres, p. 101)

Therefore, the rejection of the Sabellians after Nicaea was also a rejection of the term homoousios. This site refers to the decade after Nicaea as the ‘Post-Nicaea Correction’ because it closed the door to Sabellianism that was opened at Nicaea. See – here.

After that, nobody mentions Homoousios.

For about two decades after the ‘Post-Nicaea Correction’, nobody mentions homoousios.

“There is a near-fifteen year absence before the creed is mentioned again.” (Ayres, p. 100)

“After Nicaea homoousios is not mentioned again in truly contemporary sources for two decades. …This lack of usage also results from the association of Nicaea with the theology of Marcellus of Ancyra.” (Ayres, p. 97)

“What is conventionally regarded as the key-word in the Creed homoousion, falls completely out of the controversy very shortly after the Council of Nicaea and is not heard of for over twenty years.” (Hanson Lecture)

Councils in the 340s do not mention it.

Respectively 16 and 18 years after Nicaea, two councils met; the Dedication Council in 341 and the Council at Serdica in 343. Since both councils met during the period that homoousios was not mentioned, the creeds from these councils do not mention the term. These councils focused on the more fundamental issue, of which homoousios was only a symptom, namely, the number of hypostases in God.

The Dedication Council was a council of the Eastern Church. Its main purpose was to condemn Sabellianism. It explicitly asserts three hypostases (three Persons or Beings with three distinct minds).

The Serdica Council never met as one. The Western and Eastern delegates met separately and issued two different creeds. While the Eastern creed maintained three hypostases, the Western creed explicitly asserts one hypostasis (one Person with one mind). 

As discussed here, the dispute about the number of hypostases was the main issue of the entire Arian Controversy. It began with the second-century Monarchains and the third-century Sabellians confessing one hypostasis. But Origen taught three hypostases. In the third century, his view dominated and Sabellianism was rejected. In the fourth century, the Sabellians, Alexander, Athanasius, and the West continued to teach one hypostasis, which was eventually victorious when emperor Theodosius made one-hypostasis theology the official religion of the Roman Empire.

Athanasius revived Homoousios in the 350s.

Not even Athanasius mentioned homoousios in the 330s and 340s. That would have been the end of homoousios, but Athanasius revived the term in the 350s; specifically in the years 356-7.

During the years 335-6, Athanasius and Marcellus were deposed by the Eastern Church. Meeting in Rome, they joined forces. At that time Athanasius also developed his polemical strategy; his “masterpiece of the rhetorical art,” (Ayres, p. 106-7) saying:

      • Arius originated a new heresy, causing the Controversy.
      • All opponents of Nicaea are followers of Arius.
      • Athanasius preserves scriptural orthodoxy.
      • An Arian Conspiracy caused him to be exiled for violence while he was really exiled for opposition to Arianism.

None of these statements were true. However, the church believed Athanasius for more than 1500 years. The truth of the Arian Controversy was only revealed in the last about 100 years.

But the point is that, in the 330s and 340s, Athanasius’ polemical strategy did not say anything about homoousios. He did not yet defend it.

By the time Constantius became emperor of the entire Empire in the early 350s, Athanasius had become extremely powerful2727“Towards the end of his life he had reached a position in which his power (in Egypt), not only ecclesiastical but also political, was virtually beyond challenge.” (Hanson, p. 421) and Constantius attempted to isolate Athanasius. 28For example, at Milan in 355 “almost everybody present acquiesced in the Emperor’s demands, condemned Athanasius, and probably also signed some formula which was not openly Arian but was patient of an Arian interpretation.” (Hanson, p. 333-4) It was at this time that Athanasius strengthened his polemical strategy by adding the Nicene Creed and homoousios to his arsenal:

“It is not until he (Athanasius) writes the De Decretis (356 or 357) that Athanasius again mentions the word and begins to defend it.” (Hanson, p. 436)

“Athanasius’ decision to make Nicaea and homoousios central to his theology has its origins in the shifting climate of the 350s.” (Ayres, p. 144)

In this way, homoousios came back into the Controversy. As discussed above, the West was not involved when the Arian Controversy began. By the 350’s, the West had entered the stage and Athanasius had become the “paragon” (model) of the West (Hanson, p. 304). See here for a more detailed discussion of the current section.

Because he was a Sabellian.

Athanasius was a one-hypostasis theologian, similar to the Sabellians. That he re-introduced homoousios into the Controversy confirms the one-hypostasis implication of the term.

Athanasius is known as the main defender of the Nicene Creed and homoousios but, as discussed here, Athanasius also was a Sabellian. He claimed that he was not a Sabellian but, like the Sabellians, he believed that Father, Son, and Spirit are one hypostasis (a single Person). Specifically, he believed that the Son is part of the Father. For example:

“In the Father we have the Son: this is a summary of Athanasius’ theology.” (Hanson, p. 426)

“The fragments of Eustathius that survive present a doctrine that is close to Marcellus, and to Alexander and Athanasius. Eustathius insists there is only one hypostasis.“ (Ayres, p. 69)

“The Westerners had at Serdica in 343 produced a theological statement which appeared to have the most alarmingly Sabellian complexion, and Athanasius had certainly supported this statement, though he later denied its existence.” (Hanson, p. xix)

There were different forms of one-hypostasis theology. Some believed that the Son is another name for the Father. Others, like Athanasius, said that the Son is part of the Father. Still others, like Sabellius himself, said that Father and Son are two parts of God. But they all believed in one hypostasis, as opposed to the three-hypostases theology of Origen and the Eusebians. If we define Sabellianism as belief in only one hypostasis, then Athanasius was a Sabellian.

An anti-homoousios front

After homoousios had again become a disputed point in the Controversy, the Eusebians were divided into several factions concerning this term. However, they united against homoousios and Sabellianism, showing that one-hypostasis theologies remained the main enemy.

In the 350s, after homoousios was re-introduced into the Arian Controversy, the Eusebians (the so-called Arians) were divided into several factions concerning this term:

      • The Homoiousians said the Son’s substance is similar to the Father’s.
      • The Heterousians argued that no being’s substance can be like or similar to the Father’s, who alone exists without cause.
      • The Homoians avoided all uses of ousia words, including homoousios.

But they joined forces against homoousios and the one-hypostasis theologies that underlie the term:

The Homoians “included bishops of different stripes.” What “united” them was “the desire to find a solution to the ongoing controversy that would rule out any theologies seemingly tainted with Marcellan emphases.” (Ayres, p. 138) 

“Basil (of Ancyra – leader of the Homoiousians) made ad hoc alliances with theologians such as Acacius (leader of the Homoians) against Photinus and Marcellus.” (Ayres, p. 150)(Photinus was “perhaps the most visible representative of a Marcellan theology in these years (in the 350s).” (Ayres, p. 134))

Basil explained homoousios as three hypostases.

Basil of Caesarea, the first of the Cappadocian fathers, was the first Pro-Nicene to believe in three hypostases.

Another article shows that Basil of Caesarea, who wrote in the 360s and 370s, did not follow Athanasius and did not base his theology on the Nicene Creed. He began as a Homoiousian but later accepted the term homoousios. However, while Athanasius and other pro-Nicenes explained homoousios as meaning one hypostasis, Basil interpreted it as teaching that the Father, Son, and Spirit are three distinct substances (three hypostases or Persons or Beings) with exactly the same type of substance:

“Like unalterably according to ousia.” (Hanson, p. 696-7)

The problem is that, since their substances are equal, this implies tritheism. Nevertheless, he was the first Pro-Nicene to believe in three hypostases.

In the 360s and 370s, in what is known as the Meletian Schism, a dispute between two pro-Nicene groups in Antioch, Basil’s view brought him to oppose Athanasius and other one-hypostasis theologians.

While Basil supported Meletius as bishop of Antioch, Athanasius, Damasus of Rome and Athanasius’ successor Peter supported Paulinus (another ‘one-Person’ theologian) for that position. For example:

“The opening of the year 375 saw the ironical situation in which the Pope, Damasus, and the archbishop of Alexandria, Peter, were supporting Paulinus of Antioch, a Sabellian heretic … against Basil of Caesarea, the champion of Nicene orthodoxy in the East” (Hanson Lecture)

The Chalcedonian Creed of AD 451 uses homoousios in the same way as Basil.

The Chalcedonian symbol says Christ is “consubstantial (homoousios) with the Father as touching the Godhead, and consubstantial with us [and yet individually, distinct from us] as touching the manhood.”  29Philip Schaff, History of the Church volume 3 (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1981 edition) pp.672-673. In other words, similar to Basi, it interprets homoousios as saying that Father and Son are two distinct substances of the same type.

The Sabellians seemed to have switched to the more specific term monoousios (or synousios) after the pro-Nicenes, following Basil, used homoousios in a three-hypostasis sense.30“According to an anonymous Expositio fidei, in the fourth century the Sabellians made use of the more specific term monoousios, no longer of homoousios, the word which in the meanwhile had become the flag of the Nicene party.” (Beatrice) Ps.-Athanasius, Exp. fid. 2 (PG 25, 204 A).

FINAL CONCLUSIONS

Before Nicaea, the only Christian theologians who favored the term were the Sabellians.

At Nicaea, a Sabellian minority had the upper hand because they allied with Alexander and because the emperor took Alexander’s part. Consequently, the term homoousios, which they preferred, was inserted in the Creed, despite the objections of the majority. However, Emperor Constantine appeased the majority fears by explaining the ousia-terms highly figuratively, saying that it only means that the Son is truly from the Father. This explanation enabled the Eusebian majority to accept the Creed.

However, after the Council, the Sabellians claimed that the term homoousios means that the church had accepted a one-hypostasis theology. This caused a major dispute in the decade after Nicaea during which all leading Sabellians were deposed.

After that, the term homoousios disappeared from the Controversy. The Controversy now focused on the more fundamental disagreement; the number of hypostases in God. In the 350s, however, Athanasius brought the term back into the Controversy:

Athanasius and the West explained the term as saying that Father and Son are one hypostasis (one Person).

The Cappadocian fathers and some later pro-Nicenes opposed Athanasius and interpreted homoousios in a generic sense, meaning three hypostases.

In conclusion, throughout the entire Arian Controversy, the only people who regarded homoousios as saying that Father and Son are one substance, as in the Trinity doctrine, were the one-hypostasis (Sabellian) theologians.


OTHER ARTICLES

FOOTNOTES

  • 1
    “According to an anonymous Expositio fidei, in the fourth century the Sabellians made use of the more specific term monoousios, no longer of homoousios, the word which in the meanwhile had become the flag of the Nicene party.” (Ps.-Athanasius, Exp. fid. 2 (PG 25, 204 A))
  • 2
    Philip Schaff. History of the Church volume 3. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1981 edition. pp.672-673.
  • 3
    “It was intended to have a looser, more ambiguous sense than has in the past history of scholarship been attached to it.” (Hanson, p. 202)
  • 4
    “It is misleading to assume that these controversies were about ‘the divinity of Christ’” (LA, 14).
  • 5
    There was no such thing as an Arian.
  • 6
    “Gnosticism is a very general term applied to a wide variety of groups that would have called themselves Christian but who held to beliefs very different than anything we know as Christian today.” (Pavao, Paul. Decoding Nicea (p. 18). Kindle Edition.)
  • 7
    Athanasius (1911), “In Controversy With the Arians”, Select Treatises, Newman, John Henry Cardinal trans, Longmans, Green, & Co, p. 124, footn
  • 8
    “Around 250–300 attended, drawn almost entirely from the eastern half of the empire.” (Ayres, p. 19)
  • 9
    Bernard Lohse, A Short History of Christian Doctrine, 1966, p51-53
  • 10
    “The Origenists had considerable reservation about homoousios and the other phrases containing the term ousios (substance).” (Erickson)
  • 11
    Eusebius accepted homoousion with “obvious reluctance.” (Hanson, p. 165)
  • 12
    Bernard Lohse, in ‘A Short History of Christian Doctrine’, 1966, p51-53
  • 13
    “Constantine did put forth the Nicene creed term ‘homoousios’.” “The emperor favored the inclusion of the word homoousios.” (Millard J. Erickson, God in Three Persons, p82-85)
  • 14
    Millard J. Erickson, God in Three Persons, p82-85
  • 15
    Jörg Ulrich. Nicaea and the West. Vigiliae Christianae 51, no. 1 (1997): 10-24. 15.
  • 16
    “The concept put into the creed by Constantine himself, the homoousios. ” (Bernard Lohse, A Short History of Christian Doctrine, 1966, p51-53)
  • 17
    Constantine “himself … insisted upon the word homoousia being included in the creed.” (Jörg Ulrich. “Nicaea and the West.” Vigiliae Christianae 51, no. 1 (1997) p 15.)
  • 18
    Eusebius of Caesarea “gives the impression throughout this letter that Constantine took the initiative in all the matters that the letter deals with, apparently regarding himself as qualified to deal with any discussion about the profound questions raised by the Christian doctrine of God.” (Hanson, p. 160)
  • 19
    “Eusebius directly ascribes to Constantine only an emphasis on understanding homoousios without reference to material division or the sorts of change associated with corporeal existence.” (Ayres, p. 96)
  • 20
    “This term, however, upon which Constantine insisted, was given a special turn of meaning here. What was being affirmed and insisted upon was that the Son is different, utterly different, from any of the created beings. He is not out of any other substance, but out of the Father.” (Erickson, Millard J, God in Three Persons, p82-85)
  • 21
    “Eusebius also reports that he himself secured clarity that the phrase ‘from the essence of the Father’ did not mean ‘is part of the Father’s substance’.” (Ayres, p. 90-91)
  • 22
    Frend, WHC: The Rise of Christianity
  • 23
    Eusebius of Caesarea put forward a creed that was “revised” by “the party of Alexander,” which was “favored by the emperor,” who “favored the inclusion of the word homoousios.” (Erickson)
  • 24
    Bettenson, Documents of the Christian Church, 2nd Ed 1963, p 41
  • 25
    The term “unitarian” refers to Sabellianism. For example: “A great deal of controversy was caused in the years after the council by some supporters of Nicaea whose theology had strongly unitarian tendencies. Chief among these was Marcellus of Ancyra.” (Ayres, p. 431)
  • 26
    “This event was only one part of the conflict that now began.” (Ayres, p. 101)
  • 27
    27“Towards the end of his life he had reached a position in which his power (in Egypt), not only ecclesiastical but also political, was virtually beyond challenge.” (Hanson, p. 421)
  • 28
    For example, at Milan in 355 “almost everybody present acquiesced in the Emperor’s demands, condemned Athanasius, and probably also signed some formula which was not openly Arian but was patient of an Arian interpretation.” (Hanson, p. 333-4)
  • 29
    Philip Schaff, History of the Church volume 3 (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1981 edition) pp.672-673.
  • 30
    “According to an anonymous Expositio fidei, in the fourth century the Sabellians made use of the more specific term monoousios, no longer of homoousios, the word which in the meanwhile had become the flag of the Nicene party.” (Beatrice) Ps.-Athanasius, Exp. fid. 2 (PG 25, 204 A).

Sabellians inserted homoousios in the Nicene Creed.

PURPOSE

This is a summary of the article on the meaning of the term homoousios in the Nicene Creed produced in AD 325. Since this crucial subject puts a new perspective on the entire fourth-century Arian Controversy, I made this summary a separate post. The Nicene Creed says that the Son:

    • Was begotten of the substance (ousia) of the Father and 
    • is of the same substance (homoousios) as the Father.

The conclusions in this article may seem heterodox but are based on the writings of recent leading scholars on the fourth-century Arian Controversy. Over the last hundred years, certain ancient documents have become more readily available.1“In the first few decades of the present (20th) century … seminally important work was … done in the sorting-out of the chronology of the controversy, and in the isolation of a hard core of reliable primary documents.” (Williams, p. 11-12) Consequently, the scholarly view of the Controversy has changed dramatically.2“The four decades since 1960 have produced much revisionary scholarship on the Trinitarian and Christological disputes of the fourth century.” (Ayres, p. 11) Hanson even describes the traditional account of the Arian Controversy as a complete travesty.

The two meanings of Homoousios

‘Same substance’ has two possible meanings:

One Substance – In the traditional account of the Arian Controversy, the Trinity doctrine has existed from the beginning. In it, God is one Being (ousia) but three Persons (hypostases). Trinitarians claim that homoousios means that Father and Son are one single substance (one Being).

Two Substances – Alternatively, it could indicate two substances (two Beings) with equal divinity.

These alternative meanings of homoousios are related to the core issue in the Arian Controversy, which was whether the Father, Son, and Spirit are one hypostasis (one Person with one mind) or three:

      • In one-hypostasis theologies, such as Sabellianism, the Son is not a distinct Person with a distinct mind. Consequently, homoousios means one substance (one hypostasis or Person).
      • In three-hypostasis theologies, such as taught by the Basil of Caesarea, the Son is a distinct hypostasis (Person). Consequently, homoousios means two substances of the same type.

Recent scholarship, however, seems to agree that homoousios does not have either of these two meanings but has a looser, more ambiguous meaning.

Before Nicaea, it implied one hypostasis.

In Greek Philosophy, Aristotle used the term οὐσία (ousia) to describe his philosophical concept of Primary Substances.

In Egyptian paganism, the word homoousios meant that the Nous-Father and the Logos-Son – two distinct beings – share the same perfection of the divine nature.

The Bible never talks about God’s ousia and never says that the Son is homoousios with the Father.

Gnostics used homoousios to say that the lower deities are of a similar kind as the highest deity from whom they were derived or emanated. Gnostics were not real Christians and did not use the term to describe the Son’s relationship to the Father.

Tertullian (155-220), writing in Latin, nowhere uses any term corresponding exactly to homoousios. He used “the expression unius substantiate,” which means one hypostasis (one Person), which implies ‘one substance’.

Sabellius (fl. ca. 215) used homoousios to say that the Father, Son, and Spirit are one Person (one hypostasis). In other words, he used the term to say they are one substance.

Origen (c. 185 – c. 253) did not apply the word homoousios to the Son and did not teach that the Son is ‘from the ousia’ of the Father, despite claims to the contrary. He is famous for his ‘three hypostases’ teaching, opposing Tertullian and Sabellius.

Libyan Sabellians (c. 260) described the Son as homoousios with the Father. They meant that the Father and Son are one substance and one hypostasis (Person).

Dionysius, bishop of Rome (c. 260), agreed with the Libyan Sabellians that Father and Son were homoousios and also understood that to mean one hypostasis. His doctrine is similar to the Sabellians.

Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria (c. 260), opposed those Libyan Sabellians and rejected homoousios because Sabellius used it in rejecting the distinction of hypostases. But the Libyan Sabellians complained to the bishop of Rome. The latter persuaded Dionysius of Alexandria to accept the term but he accepted it reluctantly and only in a general sense, meaning ‘of a similar kind’. In other words, for him, the term did not mean that Father and Son are one Person or even that they are equal.

Paul of Samosata was deposed only a few years later in 268. He used the term to say that Father and Son were ‘a primitive undifferentiated unity’. That same council also condemned homoousion because it spelled Sabellianism.

Conclusion

Before Nicaea, the term homoousios was used only by the ‘one-hypostasis’ theologians. They used it to say that Father and Son are one single Person (hypostasis). Consequently, the Son is not a distinct Person.

At Nicaea, Sabellians inserted the term.

Homoousios was a surprising innovation.

The inclusion of the term in the Nicene Creed must be regarded as surprising because it is not Biblical, was not part of the standard Christian language at the time, was borrowed from the pagan philosophy of the day, and was suspect due to its Sabellian history. For these reasons, some powerful force must have been at work to ensure its adoption.

The Emperor dominated the council.

That powerful force was the emperor. In the fourth century, the general councils (the so-called ecumenical councils) were called and controlled by the emperors and were the tools whereby the emperors governed the church.3“The history of the period shows time and time again that … the general council was the very invention and creation of the Emperor. General councils … were the children of imperial policy and the Emperor was expected to dominate and control them.” (Hanson, p. 855) In the Roman culture, the emperor had the final say in church doctrine.4“If we ask the question, what was considered to constitute the ultimate authority in doctrine during the period reviewed in these pages, there can be only one answer. The will of the Emperor was the final authority.” (Hanson, p. 849)

Consistent with this principle, at Nicaea, the emperor not only proposed but also insisted on the term.5Constantine “pressed for its inclusion.” (Hanson, p. 211)6“’Homoousios’ and ‘from the essence of the Father’ were added to the creed by Constantine himself, bearing witness to the extent of his influence at the council.” (Jörg Ulrich. Nicaea and the West. Vigiliae Christianae 51, no. 1 (1997): 10-24. 15.) Constantine even dared to explain the term.

The Sabellians caused the term to be inserted.

At Nicaea, the Sabellians dominated7“Eustathius of Antioch and Marcellus … Both were influential at the council.” (Ayres, p. 99) because they allied with Alexander8“Eustathius and Marcellus … certainly met at Nicaea and no doubt were there able to join forces with Alexander of Alexandria and Ossius.” (Hanson, p. 234) and because the emperor took Alexander’s side.9“Constantine had taken Alexander’s part.” (Ayres, p. 89) Consequently, they were able to cause the insertion of the term, despite the majority’s objections. So, it really means ‘one hypostasis’. Consequently, after Nicaea, the Sabellians claimed the Creed as support for their doctrine. On the other hand, the majority agreed with the Creed because they had accepted the emperor’s explanation that it simply means that the Son is truly from the Father. In reality, they knew it meant ‘one hypostasis’.

After Nicaea

Leading Sabellians were deposed.

After Nicaea, Arius was out of the picture and Alexander died in 328. However, the conflict that began at Nicaea around the term homoousios continued for a few years. The dispute was specifically between the Eusebian majority and the leading Sabellians. As a result of this conflict, many leading Sabellians were deposed: This site calls it the ‘Post-Nicaea Correction’ because it corrected the distortions caused at Nicaea by the emperor’s interference. This period, therefore, should be regarded as part of the Nicene event.

After that, homoousios was not mentioned.

After the ‘Post-Nicaea correction’, homoousios was not mentioned again for about 20 years. During this period, two councils were held that revealed the true views of the delegates at Nicaea. Neither of these councils referred to homoousios. These councils focused on the more fundamental issue, of which homoousios was only a symptom, of the number of hypostases in God:

East – At first, the ‘West’ was not part of the Arian Controversy.10“Very few Western bishops took the trouble to attend the Council (of Nicaea). The Eastern Church was always the pioneer and leader in theological movements in the early Church. … The Westerners at the Council represented a tiny minority.” (Hanson, p. 170) So, what the delegates to Nicaea really believed when not compelled by the emperor can be seen in the Eastern Dedication Creed formulated in 431. It shows they regarded the Nicene Creed as dangerously Sabellian and explicitly confessed three hypostases.

West – Two years later, in 343, at the council at Serdica, the Western delegates produced a manifesto that explicitly says that Father and Son are one hypostasis (Person), which reveals the Sabellian preference of the West at this time. This is confirmed by their vindication of Marcellus, the main Sabellian at the time, in the year 341.

Homoousios returned to the Controversy in the 350s.

In the 350s, about 30 years after Nicaea, Athanasius brought homoousios back into the Controversy. Athanasius is known as the main defender of the Nicene Creed and homoousios during the years after Nicaea but, as another article shows, Athanasius also was a Sabellian. In his view, Father and Son are one Person. This again shows the Sabellian nature of the term homoousios.

The Eusebians formed an anti-Sabellian Front.

After homoousios had become a key factor in the 350s, the Eusebians (the so-called Arians) were divided into several factions with respect to homoousios, but formed a united front against the Sabellian thrust of the Western church. This shows that the main enemy remained Sabellianism.

Basil was the first three-hypostases pro-Nicene.

In the 360s and 370s, in what is known as the Meletian Schism, there were two factions in the pro-Nicene camp:

    • The ‘one hypostasis’ theologians (the Sabellians) were led by bishop Damasus of Rome and by Athanasius.
    • Basil of Caesarea led the ‘three hypostasis’ side. He regarded the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three distinct Beings (substances) and, therefore, three distinct Persons. But he claimed that they have exactly the same type of substance. See – Basil.

After Basil, the pro-Nicenes interpreted homoousios as referring to two distinct Persons (hypostases). But as the Trinity doctrine later developed, it accepted Basil’s terminology of three hypostases but combined it with Athanasius’ principle that Father Son, and Spirit have one single mind. For this purpose, in the traditional Trinity doctrine, Father, Son, and Spirit are three ‘Persons’ but one Being with one mind. In this doctrine, the term ‘Person’ is misleading.11Hanson says: “I refrain from using the misleading word’ Person.” He describes the Three as “three ways of being or modes of existing as God.

Final Conclusions

Before Nicaea, the only Christians who favored the term were Sabellians.

At Nicaea, a Sabellian minority was able to insert the term in the Creed, against the wishes of the majority, because the emperor took Alexander’s part.

Within a few years after Nicaea, the Sabellian drivers of the term homoousios were removed from their positions. After that, the term was not mentioned again until Athanasius brought it back into the dispute about 30 years after Nicaea; not to defend the term as such, but to defend his own Sabellian theology.

The West accepted Athanasius’ explanation because the West was traditionally Sabellian.

Basil of Caesarea accepted homoousios but he opposed Athanasius’ one-hypostasis explanation and explained it as indicating three Persons.

Therefore, before, during, and after Nicaea, the advocates of the term homoousios were Sabellians. It must be understood in a Sabellian sense.


OTHER ARTICLES

CHURCH FATHERS

ARIAN CONTROVERSY

ARIUS

THE NICENE CREED

ARIANISM

    • Athanasius invented the term ‘Arian’. 31The only reason we today refer to ‘Arians’ is that Athanasius invented the term to falsely label his opponents with a theology that was already formally rejected by the church.
    • The Dedication Creed – AD 341 32This Creed shows how the Nicene Creed would have read if Emperor Constantine had not manipulated the Nicene Council.
    • The Long Lines Creed – AD 344 33In contrast to the one-hypostasis view of the Western manifesto at Serdica in 343, the Long Lines Creed reflects a three-hypostasis theology.
    • Did Arians describe the Son as a creature? 34‘Arians’ described Christ as originating from beyond our universe, the only being ever brought forth directly by the Father, and as the only being able to endure direct contact with God.
    • Homoian theology 35In the 350s, Athanasius began to use homoousios to attack the church majority. Homoian theology developed in response.
    • Homoi-ousian theology 36This was one of the ‘strands’ of ‘Arianism’. It proposed that the Son’s substance is similar to the Father’s, but not the same.
    • How did Arians interpret Colossians 2:9? 37Forget about Arius. He was an isolated extremist. This article quotes the mainstream anti-Nicenes to show how they understood that verse.

THE PRO-NICENES

EMPEROR THEODOSIUS

AUTHORS 

Extracts and summaries from the writings of scholars who have studied the ancient documents themselves:

LATER

TRINITY DOCTRINE – GENERAL

    • Elohim 48Elohim (often translated as God) is plural in form. Does this mean that the Old Testament writers thought of God as a multi-personal Being?
    • The Eternal Generation of the Son 49The Son has been begotten by the Father, meaning that the Son is dependent on the Father. Eternal Generation explains “begotten” in such a way that the Son is co-equal and co-eternal with the Father.

OTHER

FOOTNOTES

  • 1
    “In the first few decades of the present (20th) century … seminally important work was … done in the sorting-out of the chronology of the controversy, and in the isolation of a hard core of reliable primary documents.” (Williams, p. 11-12)
  • 2
    “The four decades since 1960 have produced much revisionary scholarship on the Trinitarian and Christological disputes of the fourth century.” (Ayres, p. 11)
  • 3
    “The history of the period shows time and time again that … the general council was the very invention and creation of the Emperor. General councils … were the children of imperial policy and the Emperor was expected to dominate and control them.” (Hanson, p. 855)
  • 4
    “If we ask the question, what was considered to constitute the ultimate authority in doctrine during the period reviewed in these pages, there can be only one answer. The will of the Emperor was the final authority.” (Hanson, p. 849)
  • 5
    Constantine “pressed for its inclusion.” (Hanson, p. 211)
  • 6
    “’Homoousios’ and ‘from the essence of the Father’ were added to the creed by Constantine himself, bearing witness to the extent of his influence at the council.” (Jörg Ulrich. Nicaea and the West. Vigiliae Christianae 51, no. 1 (1997): 10-24. 15.)
  • 7
    “Eustathius of Antioch and Marcellus … Both were influential at the council.” (Ayres, p. 99)
  • 8
    “Eustathius and Marcellus … certainly met at Nicaea and no doubt were there able to join forces with Alexander of Alexandria and Ossius.” (Hanson, p. 234)
  • 9
    “Constantine had taken Alexander’s part.” (Ayres, p. 89)
  • 10
    “Very few Western bishops took the trouble to attend the Council (of Nicaea). The Eastern Church was always the pioneer and leader in theological movements in the early Church. … The Westerners at the Council represented a tiny minority.” (Hanson, p. 170)
  • 11
    Hanson says: “I refrain from using the misleading word’ Person.” He describes the Three as “three ways of being or modes of existing as God.
  • 12
    The pre-Nicene fathers described the Son as “our God” but the Father as “the only true God,” implying that the Son is not “true” God. This confusion is caused by the translations.
  • 13
    Sabellius taught that Father, Son, and Spirit are three portions of one single Being.
  • 14
    Both Sabellius and Tertullian taught that Father, Son, and Spirit are one Person with Father, Son, and Spirit as portions of that one Person.
  • 15
    The Controversy gave us the Trinity doctrine but the traditional account of the Controversy is a complete traversy.
  • 16
    RPC Hanson states that no ‘orthodoxy’ existed but that is not entirely true. This article shows that subordination was indeed ‘orthodox’ at that time.
  • 17
    The term “Arianism” implies that Arius’ theology dominated the fourth-century church. But Arius was not regarded in his time as a significant writer. He left no school of disciples.
  • 18
    Over the centuries, Arius was always accused of this. This article explains why that is a false accusation.
  • 19
    There are significant differences between Origen and Arius.
  • 20
    Arius wrote that the Son was begotten by the Father timelessly before everything. But Arius also said that the Son did not always exist. Did Arius contradict himself?
  • 21
    New research has shown that Arius is a thinker and exegete of resourcefulness, sharpness, and originality.
  • 22
    The word theos, which is translated as “God” in John 1:1 is not equivalent to the modern English word “God.”
  • 23
    Constantine took part in the Council of Nicaea and ensured that it reached the kind of conclusion that he thought best.
  • 24
    Eusebius of Caesarea, the most respected theologian at the Council, immediately afterward wrote to his church in Caesarea to explain why he accepted the Creed and how he understood the controversial phrases.
  • 25
    The Creed not only uses non-Biblical words; the concept of homoousios (that the Son is of the same substance as the Father) is not in the Bible.
  • 26
    At Nicaea, Sabellians caused homoousios to be inserted through an alliance with Alexander and because the emperor took Alexander’s side.
  • 27
    The term homoousios was not mentioned by anybody during the first 30 years after Nicaea. It only became part of that controversy in the 350s.
  • 28
    The word is not found in the Bible or in any orthodox Christian confession before Nicaea.
  • 29
    While the Creed describes Father and Son as one single hypostasis (Person), the Trinity doctrine teaches that they are distinct hypostases.
  • 30
    There was no Arian Conspiracy. It was a campaign against the claim that homoousios identifies Sabellianism as the church’s official theology.
  • 31
    The only reason we today refer to ‘Arians’ is that Athanasius invented the term to falsely label his opponents with a theology that was already formally rejected by the church.
  • 32
    This Creed shows how the Nicene Creed would have read if Emperor Constantine had not manipulated the Nicene Council.
  • 33
    In contrast to the one-hypostasis view of the Western manifesto at Serdica in 343, the Long Lines Creed reflects a three-hypostasis theology.
  • 34
    ‘Arians’ described Christ as originating from beyond our universe, the only being ever brought forth directly by the Father, and as the only being able to endure direct contact with God.
  • 35
    In the 350s, Athanasius began to use homoousios to attack the church majority. Homoian theology developed in response.
  • 36
    This was one of the ‘strands’ of ‘Arianism’. It proposed that the Son’s substance is similar to the Father’s, but not the same.
  • 37
    Forget about Arius. He was an isolated extremist. This article quotes the mainstream anti-Nicenes to show how they understood that verse.
  • 38
    Eustathius and Marcellus played a major role in the formulation of the Creed but were soon deposed for Sabellianism.
  • 39
    Athanasius presents himself as the preserver of Biblical orthodoxy but this article argues that he was a Sabellian.
  • 40
    Many believe that these accusations were false but RPC Hanson shows that Athanasius was justly condemned.
  • 41
    The West deposed Athanasius for violence but the West, which, like Athanasius, preferred a one hypostasis theology, declared him blameless.
  • 42
    In the Trinity doctrine, Father, Son, and Spirit are one substance or Being. This article shows that Basil taught three distinct substances.
  • 43
    This council reveals the state of Western theology at that time.
  • 44
    It was a regional synod of Antioch and attended only by bishops who were friendly to the bishop of Antioch. But the emperor hijacked it.
  • 45
    A summary of this book, which provides an overview of the fourth-century Arian Controversy. Lewis Ayres is a Catholic theologian and Professor of Catholic and Historical Theology.
  • 46
    A very informative lecture on the Arian Controversy by RPC Hanson, a famous fourth-century scholar
  • 47
    In the fifth century, Arian ‘barbarians’ dominated the Western Empire, but they tolerated and even respected the Trinitarian Roman Church.
  • 48
    Elohim (often translated as God) is plural in form. Does this mean that the Old Testament writers thought of God as a multi-personal Being?
  • 49
    The Son has been begotten by the Father, meaning that the Son is dependent on the Father. Eternal Generation explains “begotten” in such a way that the Son is co-equal and co-eternal with the Father.