This website is independent and non-denominational.
This main purpose of the website is to comment on the book of Revelation, but many of the articles are about Daniel because Revelation is based on Daniel. Further, a sound understanding of basic theology is also required to interpret Revelation, for instance Israel’s end time role and the Law of God. Many articles therefore study other books of the Bible.
Below the available articles are listed. Some of the articles have been summarized. Word copies of some of the articles are available.
THE BOOK OF DANIEL
IS DANIEL A FRAUD?
Daniel claims to have been written in the sixth century BC, but critics believe Daniel was written after the events it “predicts”. What evidence do we have for when was Daniel written and to accept the book as a divinely inspired miracle of God? Summary Full article Full article in Word Summary in Word
DANIEL’S EVIL HORN—GREEK OR ROMAN?
Critics identify the evil king in Daniel as the Greek king Antiochus IV. This article is an overview of the prophecies of Daniel and proposes that that evil king arises after Rome has become the dominant power. Summary Full article in Word Summary in Word
ANTIOCHUS AND DANIEL’S EVIL KING
There are many similarities between Antiochus and Daniel’s evil king, but there are also many major differences. Antiochus IV by no means exhausts the passage. Antiochus IV is not the complete fulfillment of Daniel’s predicted evil king. Summary Full article in Word Summary in Word
Summary of the book: This book is important for the interpretation of Daniel 9.
THE DISPENSATIONAL INTERPRETATION OF DANIEL 9
Detailed analysis of Daniel 9 to identify the “he” of verse 27 and the timing of the final seven years during which he acts: Summary Full article in Word Summary in Word
ROMANS 1 – Verse by Verse:
“Unrighteous” man explains “live by faith”. God reveals “His invisible attributes”, but this man rejects God. God then gives the man over to impurity.
ROMANS 2 – Verse by Verse:
Romans 2 warns Jewish Christians that they will not be justified by the Law. It announces judgment of deeds, but that is justification by faith.
ROMANS 3:1-8: The faithfulness of God:
These verses deal with the same topic as Romans 9 and 11, namely the causes and consequences of Israel’s rejection of Christ.
ALL ISRAEL WILL BE SAVED
This is a summary of the article on Israel in Romans 9 – 11. While the main article more or less sequentially works through Romans 9 – 11, this article discusses these chapters thematically. Article in Word
Some Christians in Rome did not eat meat, namely Gentiles, converted from idolatry, who still believed that meat offered to idols gave idols control over them.
The Greek word ‘koinós’ is translated “unclean” in Romans 14:14. It does not refer to the unclean animals of the Old Testament.
FOOD IN CORINTH
Similarities to 1 Corinthians 8-10 imply that the same dispute existed, namely meat sacrificed to idols. For the weak Christian eating meat is idol worship.
ROMANS 14:5-6 DAYS
Not the Sabbath – No Jewish elements – Issue is non-Jewish – Would contradict Galatians – Sabbath requires specific treatment – In context probably meat-days.
Judgment Seat of God: Judged by deeds but not be justified by the works of the Law. The difference is a difference in the Law and a difference t=in the function of the Law.
Rather Abstain: Strong Christians can harm weaker brethren by eating such unholy food, and should not eat meat rather than to cause harm.
GALATIANS CHAPTER 1
1:1-5: Introduction to the letter
Gal. 1:6-9: Distort the gospel of Christ; Accursed
Gal. 1:10-12: Gospel received through a revelation of Jesus Christ
Gal. 1:13-14; Ancestral traditions
Gal. 1:15-24: Short review of Paul’s history & Overview of Galatians 1
GALATIANS CHAPTER 2
2:1-10: Visit to church headquarters in Jerusalem; Titus not compelled to be circumcised
Gal. 2:11-14: Conflict with Peter in Antioch over forcing Gentile Christians to be circumcised and to live like Jews
Gal. 2:15-16: Church Council in Acts 15; Man is not justified by observing the Law of Moses. Jewish Christians continued to observe the Law of Moses.
Gal. 2:17-18: What did Paul destroy?
Gal. 2:19-20: Died to the Law, to live to God
Gal. 2:21: Nullify the grace of God, which is Christ’s death, by striving for righteousness through the Law
Overview of Galatians 1 & 2: Arguments for and against the circumcision of Gentile Christians
GALATIANS CHAPTER 3
3:1-5: Support for the statement that man is not justified by the works of the Law – The risk of eternal loss
Gal. 3:6-9: Further proof that man is not justified by the works of the Law – Who are Abraham’s sons?
Gal. 3:10-14: Still further proof that man is not justified by the works of the Law; Christ’s death did not change God; He always loved His creatures and always will.
Gal. 3:15-18: Two reasons why man is justified through faith
Gal. 3:19-25: Law and Promises have different functions. Man is not justified by the Law. Christians are not subject to the Law of Moses, but to the Law of Christ.
Gal. 3:26-29: There is no difference between circumcised and uncircumcised Christians. There is no need to circumcise Gentile Christians. Physical Israel no longer has a separate role in God’s plan.
Overview of Galatians chapter 1 to 3: The danger of and arguments against compelling Gentile Christians to be circumcised
GALATIANS CHAPTER 4
GALATIANS – GENERAL TOPICS
- When was Galatians Written?
- The danger: The Galatians were at risk of losing their eternal inheritance. What exactly did they do wrong?
- The Law in Galatians is the Law of Moses
- Christians are not subject to the Law of Moses, but to the Law of Christ.
- Church Council in Acts 15
COLOSSIANS CHAPTER 1
Colossians 1:1-8 – Introduction of the letter – Paul is the author – addressed to the church in Colossae – the Father is the One Who willed Paul’s apostleship
Colossians 1:9-14 – The Father rescued us to share in the kingdom of His beloved Son. The deception in Colossae claimed to have special knowledge.
Colossians 1:15-19 – The deception claimed to have received special knowledge from supernatural beings apart from Christ, but all knowledge is found in Christ; the Creator of all.
Colossians 1:20-22 – In the time before Christ, some intelligent earthly and heavenly creatures waged war against God by evil deeds. God was not angry. He ended the war by providing evidence through Christ’s death, which even heaven needed.
Colossians 1:23-28 – Paul rejoices in his suffering because it part of the stewardship he received from God. The Lord gave Paul a new message, namely that Gentiles can also be saved.
COLOSSIANS CHAPTER 2
- Colossians 2:1-4 – Deceivers in Colossae were merging the church with mystery religions, arguing that Christ is not the only source of supernatural knowledge.
- Colossians 2:5-8 – The Colossian deception was man-made pagan philosophy; not Old Testament law. It claimed that God’s grace flow to man through various supernatural mediators.
- Colossians 2:9-10 – The deception claimed that Christians will only be complete if they obey supernatural rulers. But Christians, trusting Christ, are already complete.
- Colossians 2:11 – Circumcision without hands – A heart circumcised by the Spirit loves the LORD and His Law and hates sin. Its guilt and penalty for past sins is cancelled.
- Colossians 2:11-14 – Christians were made complete through circumcision of the heart, through baptism into Christ’s cross and by cancelling their certificate of debt, which is forgiving all their sins.
- Colossians 2:14 – Translations of cheirographon – Essentially only the KJV implies that the Law of Moses has been cancelled. Most translations imply that the penalties for our sins have been cancelled.
- Colossians 2:14 – Certificate of debt consisting of decrees – Given the pagan nature of the deception cheirographon is not the Law of Moses. It is a note of indebtedness, as confirmed by most translations and by the context. It means to be “dead in your transgressions”.
- Comparing Colossians 2:14 to Ephesians 2:15 – Ephesians 2:15 abolishes the Law of Moses and is similar to Colossians 2:14, but Colossians 2:14 abolishes something else to achieve a different purpose.
- Colossians 2:15 – Satan accused God of unfair judgment. The cross demonstrated the true nature of both sides of the war in heaven, and vindicated God’s judgment.
- Colossians 2:16 Introduction – While the Sabbath is heavily debated, but it was a not controversial issue in Paul’s day.
- Colossians 2:16 – Feasts … New Moons … Sabbaths – “Festival … new moon … Sabbath” (Col. 2:16) is a technical phrase for “all the appointed feasts of the house of Israel”.
COLOSSIANS: SPECIFIC TOPICS INCLUDED IN THE DISCUSSION:
- Rulers and Authorities – Col. 2:9-10
- War in Heaven – Col. 1:20-22
- The Cross as a public display – Col. 1:20-22
- Pagan nature of the deception – Col. 2:14 See the section on Certificate of debt consisting of decrees
- Gentile community – Col. 2:16 Introduction
- Weekly versus Annual Sabbaths – Col. 2:16 Introduction
SERIES OF ARTICLES ON HEBREWS’ DEPICTION OF JESUS AS OUR HIGH PRIEST:
How Jesus became high priest. God perfected Jesus through suffering. Jesus offered Himself without blemish to God, making purification of sins through death. Jesus then sat down on His Father’s throne and became our high priest in the tabernacle in heaven.
Jesus is a better high priest. The Levitical priesthood was merely a copy and shadow of the tabernacle in which Jesus serves, and was for that reason unable to do away with sin. “Perfection”—a word which Hebrews uses for being put right with God—is only possible only through Christ.
Jesus appears before God for us. He is sympathetic and merciful. God promised, “their lawless deeds I will remember no more”, and our high priest Jesus guarantees that promise.
Draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, for Jesus is faithful and sympathetic with our weaknesses: an analysis of the introduction and conclusion of the large middle section of Hebrews (4:14-10-31) which discusses Jesus as our high priest.
Impossible to renew them again to repentance. Perfected people continue to sin unintentionally and they continue to do things which they do not want to do. But in spite of those things they remain “perfect”. But if they go “on sinning willfully”, then there only remains “a terrifying expectation of judgment and the fury of a fire which will consume the adversaries” (10:27).
VERSE BY VERSE DISCUSSION OF HEBREWS:
Hebrews 1:1-3: Christ’s message is superior to that of the Old Testament prophets because He is superior to them. He is God’s Son—the exact representation of God’s nature. Through Him God made everything and through Him God still holds everything together.
The Seventh Day – blessed at creation, counted by Noah, made a Sabbath by Moses, corrupted by the Traditions, reformed by Christ and avoided by Paul.
THE OLD TESTAMENT SABBATH
- Blessed And Sanctified At Creation
The specialness of the seventh day is part of what God created and permanently engrained into human existence.
The view that God created man over millions of years by guiding evolution makes the Bible’s core message null and void.
- From Creation To Moses
Evidence exists for a seven day cycle before Moses, but not that the seventh day was a day of physical rest.
- The Sabbath in The Law of Moses
The Sabbath was a Symbol of Liberation, a Day of Rest, a help to Israel remember the Lord and a Test of Obedience. It was not a day for church meetings or a day to seek the Lord.
JEWISH SABBATH TRADITIONS
- The Jewish Traditions are extremely detailed laws that the Jews added to the Old Testament. It was intended to help them keep God’s Law, but by representing God as a tyrant, it eventually separated them from God.
THE LAW OF CHRIST
The Law of Christ (1Cor. 9:21; Gal. 6:2) – Christ replaced the Law of Moses with a higher law – the Law of Christ. This is the law that existed “from the beginning” and reveals the Father’s heart.
CHRIST SABBATH INCIDENTS
- First Two Sabbath Healing Miracles (Luke 4; Mark 1) – Early in His ministry Christ publicly contravened the traditions by healing a man on the Sabbath. This prepared the ground for the later confrontations.
- The Man With The Withered Hand (Matthew 12:9-14 and Mark 3:1-6) – Jesus healed the man, saying, “it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath”. The Pharisees went out and immediately began to conspire as to how they might destroy Him.
- The Crippled Woman (Luke 13:10-17) – The Pharisees became angry because Jesus healed the woman. Jesus then asked, “should she not have been released from this bond on the Sabbath day?”
- When His Disciples Picked Grain (Matthew 12:1-8, Mark 2:23-28 and Luke 6:1-5) – His disciples were accused of breaking the Sabbath. He defended them by saying “The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath”, and claimed to be “Lord of the Sabbath”.
- The Invalid At Bethesda (John 5) – He justified the healing by saying: “My Father is working until now, and I Myself am working … the Son can do nothing of Himself, unless it is something He sees the Father doing” (5:19).
- The Man That Was Born Blind (John 9) – The miracle healings supported His astounding claims, condemned the Pharisees and explained the Sabbath as a day for the “
good works from the Father”.
CHRIST AND THE SABBATH
The articles above each deal with a specific Sabbath incident from the gospels. The current series of articles is a topical overview of the main principles.
- Why Christ Deliberately Contravened The Sabbath – The Jews defined healing as work that is disallowed on the Sabbath. Still Jesus deliberately healed on the Sabbath. The message therefore is important.
- The Real Reason They Killed Jesus – He contravened the Jewish traditions, and therefore was a threat to the authority of the religious rulers.
- Opportunity To Teach – The miracles gave credence to His astounding claims, such as that the Father is in Him, and He in the Father, and created the opportunity to teach.
- What Did Jesus Teach About The Sabbath? – What did Jesus teach may and must be done on the Sabbath?
- Jesus Taught A Different Sabbath. – Moses made rest the goal. Christ shifted the focus to the purpose, namely to free people from Satan’s bonds. Rest is for this purpose, and remains.
- Is the Sabbath commandment repeated in the New Testament? What are the implications?
Christmas: Its Meaning and Origin:
God’s willingness to become a human being reveals much about Him, but 25 December was derived from the pagan feast of the birthday of the Invincible Sun.
Eternal Life and Death in Paul’s Letters
Paul never wrote of eternal punishment for sinners. He consistently warns that sinners will die.
The Son of God
The Bible maintains a clear distinction between God and His Son, but also says that “all the fullness of Deity dwells in Christ”. How do we explain this?
I have no formal Bible training and do not hold a formal office in any church.
WAR IN HEAVEN
War in Heaven – This article has not yet been published.
Rulers and Authorities
Supernatural beings that oppose Christ
Disarmed the rulers and authorities
The Cross was the solution, but what was the problem, and how did the Cross solve that problem?
- Grace: His merciful kindness
- In Christ: A study of the meaning of the phrase “in Christ”, which is often found in Paul’s writings. Christ is the Vehicle through which we are rescued from this present evil age;
- Justified: An interpretation of the Greek word normally translated as “justified”. It means to be reconciled to God or put right with God.
- Live by; an Old Testament expression that means to be right with God (justified).
- Righteousness: a synonym for Justify; to be “put right with God”
- Reconciled: How did Christ’s death reconcile us to God? Did He pay the price? Did He pacify God? Does justice require somebody to suffer? Did He prove God’s judgment?
- Metaphors of Salvation
EARLY CHURCH HISTORY
Jerusalem Phase (Acts 1 to 5)
First 2 to 4 years – Receive the Holy Spirit – Exponential church growth, but in Jerusalem only. The church remained a sect of Judaism, observing the Law of Moses.
Judea and Samaria Phase (Acts 6 to 9)
Next starts 5 or 6 years – The church grew in Judea and Samaria. All Christians were Jews, regarded Gentiles as unclean and still observed the Law of Moses.
Gentile Dispute Phase (Acts 10 to 15)
Next about ten years – First Gentiles allowed to join the church. Dispute whether Gentiles must observe the Law of Moses.
Started with the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15, nearly 20 years after Christ’s death and resurrection, where it was decided that Gentile Christians do not have to observe the Law of Moses. This decision created separation between Gentile and Jewish Christians; one group observing the Law of Moses, the other not.
Theological implications of the Early Church History
Important context for Paul’s arguments with respect to the Law of Moses, Justification by the works of the Law and the Seventh Day Sabbath.
Estimated dates for significant events in the history of the early church.
THE BOOK OF REVELATION
Does Revelation describe a sequential list of chronological events?
Many people believe that Revelation it is a chronological record of events from start to finish. Revelation explains some things repeatedly, and sometimes even reverses the order of events. Article in Word
The seven seals
What book does He open? What are the seals of the book? Who are the 144000? What is the great tribulation? Who is the innumerable multitude? Article in Word
Prior reading advised: Israel in Romans 9 to 11
Does the seventh seal include the trumpets?
The trumpets have their own introduction, a theme different from the seals and focus on a different people. The seals and trumpets end with the consummation.
The Seven Wars (Revelation 12-14) – not yet published
The Beasts with Seven Heads
Revelation has three beasts with 7 heads and 10 horns—the Dragon, Sea Beast and Scarlet Beast on which the harlot sits. What are these beasts? Prior reading advised is Daniel’s evil horn–Greek or Roman? Article in Word
The Seven Heads of the Beast
The heads are limited to Daniel’s four beasts and 11th horn, but the 11th horn has three phases, and the wound-period is the sixth head. Prior reading advised is Daniel’s evil horn–Greek or Roman? Article in Word
Babylon, the mother of harlots
Who is Babylon? She exists for all human history, corrupts the people and reigns over the kings, but also destroyed by the kings.
Prior reading advised is “The Seven Headed Beasts” and “Babylon”.
- First four plagues – All people divide into two groups; the larger group persecutes the smaller. The plagues only affect the larger group. How do they react? Do they repent?
- The Fifth Plague – The fifth plague destroys the Beast’s right to rule. What gives the Beast its right to rule, and how is this destroyed?
- The Sixth Plague – Euphrates dried up. The way for the kings from the east is prepared. Demons perform miracles to gather the kings for war at Armageddon.
- The Seventh Plague – Voices, thunder, lightning, an earth-shattering earthquake splitting Babylon into three and massive hail, but still people blaspheme God. Literal or symbolic?
- The Purpose of the Plagues – Nobody is saved during plagues. Why then does God torment with plagues? Why has God not made an end to sin a long time ago?