The Sabbath is not repeated in the New Testament.

One hears, from time to time, preachers claim that nine of the Ten Commandments are repeated in the New Testament, and that the only commandment that is not repeated, is the Sabbath.  From that they most often conclude that the seventh day is not applicable to the church.  This argument seems to be based on the view, since Christ lived under the Old Covenant, that the gospels effectively are part of the Old Testament, which would make Paul the primary author and teacher of the New Covenant.

However, although Christ lived under the Old Covenant, His teachings are the foundation of the New Covenant.  After His death the church continued to exist for a few year as part of Judaism, consisting of Jews only.  After a number of years God guided the church to take the gospel to the Gentiles as well.  This caused a controversy in the young church over the question whether believing Gentiles must become Jews through circumcision.  This was the main controversy when Paul started to work, which was about ten years after Christ’s death, causing Paul to write the letter to the Galatians.  In that letter Paul wrote that, through the supernatural working of the Holy Spirit, he was informed that Gentiles are saved without becoming Jews through circumcision.  Paul’s main God-given task was to extract the church from Judaism, but Paul did not introduce a new system of ethics.  As far as ethics (moral laws) are concerned, he followed Christ.  Christ was therefore the primary teacher of the new covenant.

Since the ethics of the New Covenant are based on what Christ taught, and since He taught more about the Sabbath than about all the other nine commandments put together, it is not true to say that the Sabbath commandment is not repeated in the New Testament.  Christ did present a different seventh day, but His statements, such as that the Sabbath was made for man, and that to do good is allowed on the Sabbath, implies the continued relevance of the special seventh day.

Jesus taught a different Sabbath.

By arguing with the Pharisees what is allowed on the Sabbath, Jesus implied that certain things are not allowed.  He thereby admitted the Sabbath as binding.

But the seventh day, as practiced and taught by Christ, was different from the Sabbath of the Law of Moses.

The Law of Moses, and specifically the Ten Commandments, required the seventh day simply as a Sabbath, which means it is a day of rest.  Everybody had to rest; including servants and animals.  It was “a sabbath of complete rest … You shall not do any work” (Lev. 23:3).  Contrary to popular belief, the Law of Moses did not require people to have religious meetings or to worship God on that day.  Exodus 16:29 says “Remain every man in his place”.  The only requirement was rest.  The religious leaders applied this extremely conservatively; disallowing anything that even remotely looks like work; even healing.

Christ’s Sabbath – While the Law of Moses states negatively what is not allowed on the seventh day; “you shall not do any work” (Ex. 20:10), Christ never indicated what is not allowed.  His focus always was on what may and must be done on the seventh day.  He taught that:

Man may work on the Sabbath if that work will relief the distress and suffering of people or animals.

Man must work on the Sabbath to restore man spiritually and physically.

This means that Christ did more than to interpret the Sabbath commandment; He gave a new meaning to it.  He converted the seventh day from a day of compulsory idleness to a day that is filled with purpose, activity and work; a day to show kindness and mercy; a day to free people from the physical, psychological and spiritual bonds of Satan, to elevate the entire man to God’s ideal; in particular, a day to heal.

This meaning cannot be derived simply from reading the Law of Moses.  Christ derived His understanding of the seventh day from of its original purpose, as it existed before sin.  This is, for instance, indicated by His statement, “the Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath” (Mark 2:27).  This refers to the creation account, according to which the seventh day was “blessed” and “sanctified” as part of creation (Gen 2:3).  (See also Matthew 19:4-8).

We should not be surprised that Christ taught a Sabbath different from the Law of Moses because He did the same for the other commandments.  Christ replaced the entire Law of Moses with a higher law with much higher moral standards.  For instance, He replaced the law against murder with a law against anger.  Instead of “an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth” He taught, “turn the other (cheek)”.  With respect to adultery He said “everyone who looks at a woman with lust for her has already committed adultery”.  Christ’s higher level Law reveals the Father’s perfect heart.  The Father loves His enemies and has compassion with people.  For that reason the Law of Christ requires His followers to do the same.  The “Law of Christ” (Gal. 6:2) is the law as it existed “from the beginning”.  The Law of Moses was God’s eternal laws for mankind, but reduced to fit the condition, abilities and needs of the enslaved and corrupt little nation of Israel.  But Christ again revealed the eternal principles on which the Law of Moses was based.  See the page “The Law of Christ” for more information.

But this does not mean that the requirement to rest, as given in the Law of Moses, is no longer relevant.  The Law of Moses made rest the goal.  Christ shifted the focus from the requirement to rest, to the purpose of the rest.  Christ taught the seventh day as the preferred day for healing.  Rest is consistent this purpose.  In Christ’s teaching rest becomes a means to an end.  Healing is the end (goal) and rest is one means of achieving this goal.  On the seventh day we must cease from everyday work, to be renewed and refreshed.  But while the requirement for rest remains, the seventh day is now also a day for planned work to bring joy to people by helping them to be healed and restored.  It also becomes a work day, but a different type of work.  It is the day on which we work for the mentally, physically and spiritually sick, to heal them.

Sabbath Table of Contents

Next Building

What did Jesus teach about the Sabbath?

The purpose of this page is to analyze what Jesus taught about the Sabbath; to determine what work is allowed on the Sabbath and even what work must be performed on the Sabbath.

DAVID AND HIS MEN

In defense of His disciples, when they were accused of breaking the Sabbath by picking and eating grain while walking through a grain field, Jesus used the example of David and his men who, when they also were hungry, ate the temple bread which only priests were permitted to eat.  The principle that can be drawn from this analogy is that the real needs of people are more important than the Sabbath.  Just like the David’s hunger was more important than the prescripts with respect to the temple bread, the disciples’ hunger was more important than that the Sabbath.  Man is therefore allowed to perform work on the Sabbath if that work will provide relief to his own distress and suffering, such as hunger.

PRIESTS IN THE TEMPLE

In the same incident Christ furthermore referred to the priests who “break the Sabbath” by working in the temple, but remain without guilt because they did this work in God’s service (Mat. 12:5-6).

For instance, on the Sabbath the priests baked bread (Ex. 16:23; 1 Sam. 21:3-6) to replace the week-old bread of the presence (Lev. 24:8; 1 Chr. 9:32) and performed many other tasks related to the maintenance of the temple and sacrificial system. The same labor in a secular context would not be allowed on the Sabbath.

Christ then applied this principle to His disciples by saying, “something greater than the temple is here” (Matt. 12:6).  He was referring to Himself as “something greater than the temple” (compare Mat. 12:41, 42).  The temple and its services were mere symbols of Christ and His mission.  By comparing Himself to the temple He was, by implication, saying that the disciples were equivalent to priests serving in the temple, who are allowed to work on the Sabbath.  While His disciples were with Him, they were in God’s service for the redemption of sinners, just like the priest work in the temple for the redemption of sinners.

The principle is that work is allowed on the Sabbath if that work has to be done while in God’s service for the redemption of sinners.

MADE FOR MAN

Also in the same incident Christ also said:

the Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath” (Mark 2:27).

He said this because the Jews, through their traditions, made man the servant of the Sabbath.  The Sabbath was created for man’s benefit (Gen. 2:3); for man’s welfare and happiness.  It must serve man’s needs.  That is why real human needs are more important than the Sabbath.  Wearisome rules with respect to the Sabbath, which prevent people from satisfying their hunger, defeats and perverts the Sabbath’s intended purpose.

LORD OF THE SABBATH

Christ concluded His arguments in the grain-eating incident by saying:

so the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath” (Mark 2:28).

The word “so” means that the Son of man is Lord of the Sabbath because the Sabbath was made for man (v. 27).  The title “Son of Man” comes from Daniel 7:13-14, where “One like a Son of Man”—this is Jesus—receives “everlasting dominion” over “all the peoples, nations and men of every language”.

Putting these thoughts together, since the Sabbath is part of man’s existence, and since Jesus is Lord over man, He is also Lord of the Sabbath.

But why was it necessary for Christ to say that He is “Lord even of the Sabbath”?  Some propose that He said it to indicate that He will change or abrogate the Sabbath, but there is no indication of this in the context.  To the contrary, His previous statement that “the Sabbath was made for man” (Mark 2:27) implies that the Sabbath will remain for as long as man exists.

It is proposed here that He said that He is “Lord even of the Sabbath” not to say something about the Sabbath, but to say something about Himself.  In the same context He also said that “the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins” (Mark 2:10), that “All things have been handed over to Me by My Father” (Mat 11:27) and that He is “greater than the temple”, “greater than Jonah” and “greater than Solomon” (Mat. 12:6, 41, 42).  The statement “so the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath” therefore explains who Jesus is.

TO DO GOOD

Jesus justified the healing of the man’s withered hand by saying that “it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath” (Mat. 12:12).  To “do good” is to assist people or animals that are in distress.  The example of David above shown that man is allowed to work on the Sabbath to relief his own distress.  By saying that it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath” Jesus taught that man is also allowed to work on the Sabbath to relief the distress of other people. This example also teaches that disease and illness, even chronic illness are counted as “real needs” or “distress”.

TO FREE FROM THE BONDS OF SATAN

In His justification of the healing of the crippled woman He used the word luein, which means to free.  He used this word three times, but these words are translated differently in each case.  He first said to the woman, “Woman, you are freed (luein) from your sickness” (Luke 13:12).  After the synagogue official responded with anger (v14), Jesus used the example of an ox or donkey that is untied (luein) and lead away to water on the Sabbath (v15).  Lastly He justified her healing by saying:

And this woman, a daughter of Abraham as she is, whom Satan has bound for eighteen long years, should she not have been released (luein) from this bond on the Sabbath day?” (v16)

This incident confirms that work is allowed on the Sabbath if that work is to address the real needs of people.  This example also expands on the definition of man’s real needs for which work is allowed on the Sabbath, namely:

  • Illness, even from chronic illness;
  • Thirst (and therefore other basic needs, such as hunger, shelter and clothes);
  • Bonds of Satan;

JOHN

The gospel of John records the Sabbath healings of a man that was an epileptic for 38 years (John 5) and a man that was born blind (John 9).  We find no direct statements in this gospel explaining why healing is allowed on the Sabbath.  Christ’s justifications are limited to more general statements, such as:

My Father is working until now, and I Myself am working” (5:17).

“the Son can do nothing of Himself, unless it is something He sees the Father doing; for whatever the Father does, these things the Son also does in like manner” (5:19).    Out of his love for the Son, the Father “shows him all things he himself is doing” (5:20).

If a man receives circumcision on the Sabbath so that the Law of Moses will not be broken, are you angry with Me because I made an entire man well on the Sabbath?” (7:23).

We must work the works of Him who sent Me as long as it is day; night is coming when no one can work” (9:4-5).

I showed you many good works from the Father; for which of them are you stoning Me?” (10:32)

The words work, “working”, “do”, “doing” and “does” link these statements to the works of healing which He performed on the Sabbath.  We therefore from John that:

  • To heal on the Sabbath was something that Christ received from the Father.
  • Healing is “good works from the Father” (10:32);
  • To make “man well” (7:23), physically and spiritually, is allowed on the Sabbath.

All work necessary on the Sabbath to accomplish the Father’s purpose to redeem and restore man is in harmony with the Sabbath.

THE PURPOSE OF THE SABBATH

Healing is not only allowed on the Sabbath; it is the very purpose of the Sabbath.  This is implied by the following:

The large number of Sabbath healing miracles that are recorded in the gospels implies that Christ considered the Sabbath as the most appropriate day for healing..

In healing the crippled woman, He said: “this woman … whom Satan has bound for eighteen long years, should she not have been released from this bond on the Sabbath day?” (Luke 13:16)  He seems to be saying that the Sabbath is the preferred day for healing chronically ill people.

CONCLUSION

Work that is allowed on the Sabbath, according to Christ, can be divided into three categories.

Firstly, work that is allowed on the Sabbath, namely to provide relief for distress and suffering.  Since “the Sabbath was made for man” (Mark 2:27) and since “it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath” (Mat. 12:12), man is allowed to work on the Sabbath if that work will relieve the distress and suffering of people or animals, even his own distress and suffering, even if the suffering began prior to the Sabbath. Distress includes thirst and hunger, and therefore other basic needs, such as shelter, safety and clothes.

Secondly, work that is our duty on the Sabbath, namely work to restore man spiritually and physically / to make man well.  This includes to heal people from disease and illness, even chronic illness, and to release people from Satan’s physical and spiritual bonds.  This work is not only allowed on the Sabbath; the Sabbath is the preferred day for such work, as indicated by the following:

To justify His healing miracles in John 5 and in John 9, He said, “the Father is working still” (5:17) and “we must work” (9:4).  The “we must work” directly contradicts the Sabbath commandment “you shall not do any work” (Deut. 5:14).  But the work which Jesus spoke about was specifically work for man’s spiritual and physical restoration.  Jesus did not say “we may work”.  He said “we must work”.  This means it is our duty to do this work on the Sabbath.

We find the same idea in the healing of the crippled woman, when Jesus asked: And this woman, a daughter of Abraham as she is, whom Satan has bound for eighteen long years, should she not have been released (luein) from this bond on the Sabbath day?” (Luke 13:16)  This question implies that the Sabbath is the most appropriate day to release or free somebody, and therefore that the purpose of the seventh day is to free people from the bonds of Satan—which includes physical illnesses.  Since Satan also bounds people psychologically and spiritually, we can conclude that the purpose of the seventh day is to free people from the physical, psychological or spiritual bonds of Satan.

A third indication of this concept is found in the many Sabbath healing miracles, which are recorded in the gospels.  None of these miracles was an emergency.  Neither was He explicitly asked to perform these miracles.  The large number of Sabbath healing miracles imply that the Sabbath is the preferred day for healing. This implies that the purpose of the Sabbath is to restore man.  Anything that we can do to restore people to health, holistically defined, is not only allowed, but the very purpose of the seventh day, and our duty to perform.

Thirdly, related to the second, work that is allowed when one is in God’s service for the redemption of sinners, even if that work is not primarily or directly to redeem, but required for that purpose, for instance the work of the priests in the temple and the disciples picking grain on the Sabbath.

The work that is allowed and required on the Sabbath is therefore work for the benefit of man and beast.  It is a day to recover and to restore.  The Sabbath is the day on which man should expect supernatural healing.

Sabbath: Table of Contents

Next: Jesus taught a different Sabbath.

Opportunity to teach

John 5, after the healing of the paralytic at Bethesda (5:14), includes a long debate between Christ and the Pharisees (5:17-47), but that debate was not about the Sabbath directly.  He explained to them certain higher order principles, such as His work of resurrecting people from death (5:21, 25, 29), judgment, and eternal life (5:24, 39-40) and honoring the Son “even as they honor the Father” (5:21-30).

Similarly, after the miracle healing in John 9, Jesus told the Pharisees that He is one with the Father (10:30), that he was sent by the Father, that the Father is in Him, and He in the Father (10:38), that He is the Son of God (10:36), that He is the door to God’s people, that He is the good shepherd (10:7, 11-16) and that He has the authority from the Father to give up His life and to take it up again.

One purpose of the Sabbath healing miracles, acting deliberately contrary to the traditions of the elders, was therefore to create the opportunity to teach the religious rulers.  He gave the nation of Israel every opportunity to repent.  As He said,

I say these things so that you may be saved” (5:34).

Because of His claims, such as that the Father is in Him, and He in the Father, some Pharisees concluded that He has a demon.  But others were willing to believe Him because of the miracles.  This was another purpose of the miracles, namely to support these astonishing claims:

If I do not do the works of My Father, do not believe Me; but if I do them, though you do not believe Me, believe the works, so that you may know and understand that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father.” (10:37-38)

Sabbath: Table of Contents

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