This is the second article in response to an article on the Trinity by the Gotquestions website. The first article discussed the logical contradiction in the Trinity concept. The current article responds to Gotquestions’ argument that “GOD THE SON IS DISTINGUISHED FROM GOD THE FATHER” and refers to Psalm 45:6-7 and Hebrews 1:8-9 for support.
The point is that Hebrews 1:8 refers to Jesus as “God.” But does this prove that He is God? Hebrews 1:8-9 is a quote from Psalm 45. I will, therefore, discuss Psalm 45 first. After that, I discuss the first part of Hebrews 1, and conclude with verses 8 and 9.
But before I discuss Psalm 45, note that GotQuestions refers to “God the Son” and also to “God the Father.” We DO find the title “God the Father” in the Bible; about 20 times, but the title “God the Son” IS NEVER FOUND IN THE BIBLE. The phrase “God the Son” is the product of the Trinity doctrine and does not come from the Bible.
All bold, underlining, UPPERCASE, font sizes and italics in this article were added by myself. Bible quotes are mostly from the NASB.
Let us now discuss Psalm 45. Verses 1 and 2 read:
1 … I address my verses TO THE KING …
2 … GOD HAS BLESSED YOU forever …
This, therefore, makes a distinction between God and the king of Israel. But verses 6 to 9 continue and refer to the king of Israel as God. Addressing the king, it says:
6 YOUR THRONE, O GOD, IS FOREVER AND EVER;
A scepter of uprightness is the scepter of Your kingdom.
7 You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness;
Therefore GOD, YOUR GOD, HAS ANOINTED You …
9 Kings’ daughters are among Your noble ladies;
At Your right hand stands the queen.”
This identifies the king of Israel as God. This is confirmed by verse 9, which mentions the king’s wives. But it also says, “GOD, YOUR GOD, has anointed You.” In other words, the king of Israel is called God, but God is also his God.
All four instances of the word “God” in the quote from the psalm are translated from the Hebrew word elohim, which Strongs defines as “God,” with a capital “G,” or “god,” with a small “g.” The NASB translates elohim mostly as “God,” with a capital “G,” but also about 250 times with a small “g” “god” or “gods.”
The word elohim is discussed in a separate article. Another place where we see a human being described as “god” or elohim—literally “gods”—is in Exodus 7:1, where “The LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made you a god [that is elohim] to Pharaoh.”
The king is a normal human being. Why is he called elohim? We will respond to that question below, after we have discussed Hebrews 1.
Why is elohim translated as “God?”
But before we turn to Hebrews, there is a second matter in Psalm 45 that requires our attention. That is the question, why did the translators of the NASB translate the word “King” in verse 1 with a capital “K?” And why did they translate elohim, when it refers to the king, as “God” with a capital “G?” Why did they not translate elohim with a small “god,” as they did in the case of Moses, and as they do for all beings that are not God, but who are referred to as elohim?
It is not because of anything in the psalm itself, for there is nothing in the psalm that goes beyond a normal human king. The translators capitalized these words for two reasons:
Firstly, they know that Hebrews 1 refers to Psalm 45 and interprets the king in this psalm as a type of (a symbol of) Christ.
Secondly, the translators are Trinitarians, and therefore believe that Jesus is God.
What we must realize is that, to translate elohim when it refers to the king of Israel, as “God” with a big “G,” rather than with a small “g,” is an application of the Trinity doctrine.
With this background, we can now discuss Hebrews 1:
A primary purpose of Hebrews is to exalt Jesus. The letter, for example, commences by saying:
- That God appointed His Son as “heir of all things” (1:2).
- That, through the Son, God, “made the world” (1:2).
- That the Son “is … the exact representation of God’s nature” (1:3).
- That the Son “upholds all things by the word of His power” (1:3), and
- That the Son “sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high” (1:3).
Distinct From God
Note that “God” in verse 1 is identified as “the Majesty on high” in verse 3.
We discussed above how Gotquestions refers to “God the Son,” but these first verses of Hebrews make an explicit distinction between “God” and “His Son.” If the Son is distinct from God, then the Son is not God, if we use the word “God” in the way that the New Testament uses it.
From verse 4 onwards, Hebrews explains that the Son is “much better than the angels.” If the Son was God, as the Trinity doctrine requires, then there WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN ANY NEED to argue that the Son is better than the angels. Then the writer of Hebrews could simply have said that the Son is God. See Jesus is not God for a further discussion of these principles.
Subordinate to God
We must also appreciate that these verses identify the Son as subordinate to God, for example:
- God is the original Owner, because He “appointed” His Son as the heir of all things (1:2).
- God is the Creator, for He made the world “through” the Son (1:2).
- God is the true glory, for the Son is the radiance of His glory (1:3).
- God is the ultimate Ruler, for the Son sits on His “right hand.”
The fundamental concept in the Trinity doctrine is that the Son is co-equal with the Father. The entire remainder of the Trinity concept has been developed to reconcile this conclusion with the Bible. If it is then found that the Son is subordinate to God, then the entire Trinity doctrine collapses. For a further discussion, see, God is the Head of Christ.
Today I have begotten You
In verse 5, Hebrews 1 quotes from Psalm 2, saying “you are my son, today I have begotten you.” In Psalm 2, these words refer to the king of Israel. Hebrews, therefore, interprets the king of Psalm 2 to be a type of the Son. Hebrews quotes the Old Testament very frequently, for it was specifically addressed to the Hebrew Christians.
Worship the Son.
Hebrews continues and says that GOD COMMANDED ALL ANGELS TO WORSHIP THE SON (1:6). If Jesus is worshiped, DOES THAT NOT MEAN THAT HE IS GOD? Hebrews 1:6 is similar to Philippians 2:9-10, where we read,
“God highly exalted Him (that is, Jesus),
and bestowed on Him the name which is above EVERY NAME,
so that at the name of Jesus EVERY KNEE WILL BOW …
and that every tongue will confess
THAT JESUS CHRIST IS LORD,
TO THE GLORY OF GOD THE FATHER.”
God commanded His worship.
The question then is, if Jesus is not God, WHY IS HE WORSHIPED? To respond to this question, notice the following:
FIRSTLY, both Hebrews 1:6 and Philippians 2 make an explicit distinction between God and Jesus. Philippians 2, for example, says that “God exalted Him.” Furthermore, “every tongue will confess THAT JESUS CHRIST IS LORD.” In other words; they will not confess Jesus as God.
SECONDLY, in both, IT IS GOD WHO CAUSES ALL BEINGS TO WORSHIP JESUS. If Jesus was God, then THERE WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN ANY NEED for God to COMMAND His creatures to worship Him.
THIRDLY, the Greek word that is translated “worship” (that is the word proskuneó) has a much wider meaning than the English word “worship.” “Worship” implies that the one worshiped is God, but humans also proskuneó one another. Proskuneó simply means to show honor. It literally means “to kiss the ground when prostrating before a superior.” For example, the three wise men came looking for the “King of the Jews” (Mt. 2:2). When they found Him, “they fell to the ground and proskuneó Him” (v11); not because He is God, for they did not think of Him as God, but because He is “born King of the Jews.”
FOURTHLY, in Philippians 2, Jesus is worshiped “TO THE GLORY OF GOD THE FATHER.” He is not worshiped independently from God, but “to the glory of God.” To glorify the Son is to glorify the Father. We worship the Father through the Son.
But why do we worship Jesus?
Why do we worship the Son with the Father? The reason is that WE CANNOT REALLY SEPARATE THE SON FROM GOD. I like Tertullian’s metaphor. For him, the Father is like the sun in the sky, and His Son is like the rays streaming from the sun. God created all things through His Only Begotten Son and He still “upholds all things by the word of His (that is, His Son’s) power” (Heb. 1:1-3; cf. John 1:1-3; Col 1:15-17). “In Him (that is, in Jesus) all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily form” (Col. 2:9). We therefore worship the Son, not only because God commanded us to, but because of who He is. For a further discussion, see Jesus is worshiped.
Only Begotten Son of God
When people hear that Jesus is the Son of God, they think of human sons, who are in all respects equal to their fathers. But the Bible does not teach that the Son is equal to God. He is called the SON of God to reveal to us that He has a very unique relationship with God AS FAR AS HIS ORIGIN IS CONCERNED. He is His “only begotten Son,” who, before His birth as a human being, existed “in the form of God” (Phil. 2:5). To describe Jesus as the “only begotten Son” attempts to explain something in human language which human minds cannot comprehend. He was not begotten as humans are. We should not give our own interpretation of this symbolic language. We should allow the Bible to interpret it for us. For a further discussion, see Only Begotten Son of God.
Then, after describing the angels as “winds, and … a flame of fire,” we come to the verses that are the particular focus of the current article, namely verses 8 and 9. I read:
8 But of the Son He says,
“YOUR THRONE, O GOD, IS FOREVER AND EVER,
AND THE RIGHTEOUS SCEPTER IS THE SCEPTER OF HIS KINGDOM. 9 “YOU HAVE LOVED RIGHTEOUSNESS AND HATED LAWLESSNESS; THEREFORE GOD, YOUR GOD, HAS ANOINTED YOU …”
This is a fairly exact quote from Psalm 45:6-7. The author of Hebrews interprets the king of Israel in Psalm 45 as a type of Jesus. The writer described Jesus as “God” in verse 8 because Psalm 45 refers to the king of Israel as “God.” We now need to explain why the king of Israel, and consequently, the Son of God, are described as God.
“God” and the Greek word theos
The word “God” in Hebrews 1:8 is translated from the Greek word theos. Theos, similar to the Hebrew word elohim, can be translated as “god” either with a capital “G” or with a lower “g.” It depends on who it refers to. This requires further clarification.
THERE IS NO WORD IN THE ORIGINAL GREEK TEXT THAT IS EXACTLY EQUAL TO OUR WORD “GOD.” In modern English, we use the word “God,” with a capital “G,” to identify one specific Being; namely, the Uncaused Cause of all things. The word “God,” with a capital “G,” functions in English as A PROPER NAME FOR THE SUPREME BEING.
The ancient languages did not have the modern differentiation between lower and upper case letters. They only had words (such as theos and elohim) that are equivalent to our word “god” with a lower “g.” The word “god,” with a lower “g,” does not identify any specific being, but A CATEGORY OF BEINGS. That group of beings includes the God of the Bible, but also includes other beings. For example, Satan is also called theos, namely “the god of this world” (2 Corinthians 4:4).
Therefore, to translate theos as “God” with a capital “G” or as “god” with a lower “g” depends on the translator’s interpretation, and since translators generally are Trinitarians, they translate the instances where the title theos is applied to Jesus, as “God” with a capital “G.” But if one does not assume the Trinity theory, the reference to Jesus as theos in Hebrews 1:8 may also be translated as “god,” with a lower “g.”
It is a form of collective circular reasoning: First, the Trinitarian translator adds a capital “G.” Then the readers exclaim, SEE, it says “God! Therefore Jesus is God!” For a further discussion, see – The Meanings of the Word THEOS.
God Jesus has a God.
In conclusion, the fact that Hebrews 1:8 identifies Jesus as God does not prove that He is God. The next verse actually proves that He is not God, for it says to Jesus, “GOD, YOUR GOD, HAS ANOINTED YOU” (Heb. 1:9). In other words, Jesus has a God over Him. This makes one think of John 20. That chapter similarly refers to Jesus as “God,” but in the same chapter Jesus refers to God as His God (compare verses 17 and 28). See – Did Thomas call Jesus “my God” in John 20:28?
Hebrews 1:8 refers to Jesus as “God.” Does this prove that Jesus is God?
The first verses of Hebrews 1, in a number of ways, make an explicit DISTINCTION BETWEEN JESUS AND GOD, and, contrary to the Trinity doctrine, represent Jesus as SUBORDINATE TO GOD. According to verse 6, God commanded all angels to worship the Son. This again shows that the Son is subordinate to the Father. But we do not worship the Son only because God commanded us to. We worship Him because of who He is, for God created all things through Him and still upholds all this through the word of His Son’s power.
Jesus is called theos (that is, god) in Hebrews 1:8 because:
(a) Hebrews 1:8 is a quote from Psalm 45.
(b) In that psalm, the king is called elohim (god).
(c) The writer of Hebrews interpreted the king of Psalm 45 as a type of Christ.
That Jesus is called theos does not prove that He is God, for theos can also be translated either as “god” with a small “g.” But translators are Trinitarians, and therefore believe that Jesus is God. To translate theos as “God,” with a capital “G,” rather than with a small “g,” when it refers to Jesus, IS PURELY INTERPRETATION. It is an application of the Trinity doctrine.
BUT THE VERY NEXT VERSE PROVES THAT JESUS IS NOT GOD, for it says that Jesus has a God over Him.