The 24 elders – Revelation 4:4 Based on descriptions elsewhere in Revelation, the 24 elders in God’s throne room are people; not angels. A review of the numbers in Revelation shows that 12 and 24 are associated with God’s people. Revelation merges God’s people from the Old and New Testaments into a single entity. The number 24, therefore, consists of 12 from Israel and 12 from the church age.
Revelation 4:8-11 – verse-by-verse These verses describe the worship in God’s presence. This article also discusses the worship in Revelation 5, after Jesus appears on the throne and receives glory equal with the Father. Does this mean that Jesus is God; equal with the Father?
Revelation 5 is Christ’s enthronement. This chapter presents a specific event. Based on descriptions in the rest of the New Testament, Revelation 5 describes Christ’s enthronement after His ascension 2000 years ago.
The sealed book is the Lamb’s Book of Life. The sealed book symbolizes things that are not understood and the seven seals symbolize the things that prevent understanding. It is the book of God’s judgments as to who will inherit eternal life, also known as the book of life.
Christ resolves the crisis of the sealed book through demonstrations. The book of Rev 5 is sealed because of a dispute between the angels of heaven over God’s judgments. Christ refutes Satan’s accusation through demonstrations of faithfulness: Firstly, during His own death, He overcame Satan’s ultimate temptation. Secondly, the deaths of God’s elect demonstrate their worthiness. God delays Christ’s return and the implementation of His judgments until all understand that His judgments are perfect.
Revelation 5 – verse by verse This article is highly dependent on the other three articles on Revelation 5. The first four verses describe the time before Christ, verses 5-6 describe His death and the rest of the chapter describes what happens in heaven after His ascension.
The First Seal – the white horse When the Lamb breaks the first seal, a white horse goes out conquering and to conquer. In the preterist view, this is the Parthians, who attacked the Roman Empire on white horses. Dispensationalists identify this as the antichrist. This article interprets it as the gospel.
Seals two to four The four horsemen form a unit, which means that these seals stand is a cause-consequence relationship: The white horse is the gospel. The red horse is the persecution of God’s people when the gospel is rejected. The consequence is the black horse of famine (scarcity) of the Word of God, leading to the pale horse of spiritual death.
Fifth seal Souls UNDER the altar cry out for revenge. The souls are not believers that went to heaven in a bodiless state at death but symbolize God’s slain people as sacrificed ON the altar. Their cry for revenge symbolizes God’s awareness of the suffering of His people and His desire to set things right. They receive white robes but they have washed their own robes (Rev 7:14). They are told to wait until their brethren have been made complete, which means spiritually mature.
The sixth seal This seal is creation in reverse: Everything is destroyed but it is not yet the end, for the people still hide, while they will be killed when Christ returns. But it brings us to the brink of His return, as indicated by the multiple allusions to the Day of the Lord, the “great day,” the “great earthquake” which moves mountains, the signs in the sun, moon, and stars.
Sealed through persecution God’s people will also be sealed DURING AND THROUGH the Revelation 13-crisis in which the image of the beast will force all people to accept the mark of the beast. The plagues will begin to fall when every person will either have the mark of the beast or the seal of God.
The Seal of the living God
People are sealed with the Holy Spirit when they become Christians but the seal in Revelation 7 is something special that only end-time believers will receive to safeguard them during the final catastrophic events before Christ returns. God will make more of His grace and power available to the last-day church because she must accomplish more than the church in any age has yet accomplished.
The Time of the End The seal of God comes down from heaven at a specific point in history. This article argues that the fifth seal, when the souls under the altar are told to rest for a little while longer, represents that point in time and that that is the beginning of “the time of the end” (Daniel 12:4) when Daniel’s prophecies will become understood and preached.
144000 are sealed from the tribes of Israel. These 144000 Israelites cannot be interpreted literally because numbers, in Revelation, are symbolic and because Revelation and the entire New Testament merge the church into Israel. The number 144000 symbolizes that these people are spiritually mature and will not withdraw their testimony under persecution.
The Innumerable Multitude Revelation 7:9-17; verse-by-verse – Is the Great Multitude the same as 144000? They seem like complete opposites. Are this multitude described before or after Christ’s return?
This seal is very brief. In a single brief verse, it simply says that there will be silence in heaven for half an hour. On the basis of the context, this article interprets it as the sorrow in heaven when the lost are put to death at the return of Christ.
Does the seventh seal include the seven trumpets? The seventh seal DOES NOT include the seven trumpets. The seals describe the experience of God’s people but the last two seals show the destruction of the lost. The trumpets then jump back in time to explain what God did to turn the lost from their disastrous paths.
People’s deeds will refute Satan’s criticism of God’s judgments. Previous articles concluded that the sealed book is the book of life and the seals are Satan’s accusations against the people listed in the book. Breaking the seals symbolizes that Satan’s accusations are refuted. From the description of the Last Judgment in Revelation 20, this article concludes that it is the deeds of people that refute Satan’s accusations. God’s people will choose death rather than going against God’s laws. Satan’s people will show that they are irreversibly committed to evil.
The Book of Revelation divides into several main parts. It begins with the letters to the seven churches (ch. 1-3) and ends with the Millennium (ch. 20) and “a new heaven and a new earth” (Rev 21:1) (ch. 21-22). In the body of the book, we find four main sections:
The Seven Seals (ch. 4-7);
The Seven Trumpets (ch. 8-11);
The Seven Wars (ch. 12-14); and
The Seven Plagues (ch. 15-19).
Another article shows that, during the end-time persecution of God’s people as described by Revelation 13 and 14, people will receive either the mark of the beast or the seal of God. As soon as everybody on earth has received either of these marks, the seven plagues will begin to fall. The plagues, therefore, are limited to the end-time only. The following are two opposing views with respect to the seven seals, seven trumpets, and the seven wars:
The recapitulation view is that these three main divisions of Revelation describe the same period, namely the church age; from the cross to the return of Christ, but from different perspectives:
The seven seals emphasize the experience of God people (e.g., Rev 6:9; 7:3; 7:14).
The seven trumpets are God’s warnings to the world and explain how the people experience and respond to His warnings (e.g., Rev 8:13; 9:4; 11:10).
The seven wars (Rev 12-14) build on Daniel’s visions to identify the organizations involved in the persecution of God’s people. This section identifies the dragon, the beast, the false prophet (the beast from the earth), and the image of the beast.
In another view, the visions of Revelation are listed strictly chronologically from beginning to end, with only one final climax at the end of the book. In this view, the seventh seal includes the seven trumpets
The following seems to support the view that the seventh seal DOES INCLUDE the seven trumpets:
Chapters 8 to 11 of Revelation describe the trumpets and the seventh seal (Rev 8:1) is part of chapter 8.
Nothing happens in the seventh seal—only silence. So, perhaps this means that the real action of the seventh seal is the seven trumpets.
However, for the following reasons, the seventh seal CANNOT include the seven trumpets:
The themes of the seals and the trumpets are very different; even opposites. This difference in themes implies that the warning trumpet cannot be part of the seventh seal.
3) The sixth seal is Christ’s return.
The sixth seal describes a point in time during Christ’s return (Rev 6:12-14; 6:17) and introduces the new heaven and new earth (e.g., Rev 7:17). The seventh seal, therefore, must be later a later event. It follows, since the trumpets describe the old world of sin and sorrow, that they cannot be included in the seventh seal.
4) Satan’s Objections Refuted
The seventh seal describes what happens when the seventh seal of the book is broken. A previous article concluded as follows:
The book (Rev 5:1) is the Book of Life, identifying the people whom God had elected to eternal life.
The seals of the book, which prevent the beings in heaven from reading it, are Satan’s informed objections to the grace God grants His elect. Satan accuses God of unfair judgment.
That nobody is able to open that book (Rev 5:3) symbolizes that the heavenly beings are unable to refute Satan’s objections. In other words, they are unable to prove that God’s judgments are always perfect.
Since God will execute His judgments through Christ’s return, He delays Christ’s return UNTIL Satan has been FULLY refuted.
That Jesus breaks the seals (e.g., Rev 6:1) means that He directs events on earth to refute Satan’s objections.
Consequently, when the seventh and final seal is broken, all of Satan’s accusations have been refuted and all barriers to understanding God’s judgments are removed. Then there would be no further need to allow evil to continue to reign on this planet and God could implement His judgments through the resurrection of His people (Rev 20:4) and the destruction of His enemies (Rev 19:20-21).
1) The silence of the seventh seal results from the sorrow in God’s heart when billions of people are put to death (Rev 19:21).
2) The trumpets, describing the disasters of the old earth, cannot be part of the seventh seal but must describe an earlier time.
5) Switches jump back in time.
The trumpets end with Christ’s return (Rev 11:15) but the next vision (the seven wars) jumps back to the time of Christ’s birth (Rev 12:2; 12:5). Since this happens in the switch from the trumpets to the wars, the same probably also happens in the switch from the seals to the trumpets.
6) FROM CHRIST’S BIRTH TO HIS RETURN
Both the seven seals and the seven wars explicitly begin with Christ’s first advent and end with His return (Rev 5:5; 6:17; 12:5; 14:14). Both, therefore, cover the entire Christian era. Consequently:
1) It is clear that Revelation uses recapitulation.
2) Since the two main parts before and after the trumpets both cover the whole Christian era, and since ALL THREE of these main parts conclude with Christ’s return, it is very likely that the trumpets also begin with Christ’s first advent.
7) THE TIME, TIMES, AND A HALF
Both Daniel and Revelation describe the “time, times, and a half a time” as a period of persecution of God’s people (Dan 7:25; 12:7). Both the trumpets and the wars cover this period (Rev 11:2, 3; 12:6, 14; 13:6). Since the focus of the seals is also the persecution of God’s people (Rev 6:9; 7:14), IT MUST ALSO COVER THIS PERIOD. But that would mean that all three of the seals, trumpets, and wars cover this period.
8) THE CHIASM
Revelation 8:2-6 is the introduction to the trumpets and has a literary structure called a chiasm. This shows that these verses form a unit. Since Revelation 8:1 is not part of this unit, it does not form part of the trumpets. (For more detail, see Chiasm.)
9) RECAPITULATION IN DANIEL
Since, as is generally accepted, Daniel is the foundation on which Revelation is built, and since, as is also generally accepted, the visions in Daniel build on each other—each providing additional insights concerning periods covered by previous visions, we might the same in Revelation.
10) A LITERAL READING RESULTS IN MANY CONTRADICTIONS.
The idea that the seven trumpets are included in the seventh seal is part of a strictly literal and chronological interpretation of Revelation. But such an interpretation results in many contradictions. For example, in the first trumpet, all the green grass is burned up (Rev 8:7) but, in the fifth trumpet, the grass is protected (Rev 9:4).
The Book of Revelation may be divided into main parts, namely:
Seven Letters (ch. 1-3)
Seven Seals (ch. 4-7);
Seven Trumpets (ch. 8-11);
Seven Wars (ch. 12-14);
Seven Last Plagues (ch. 15-19)
The Millennium (ch. 20); and
The New Jerusalem (ch. 21-22).
One view is that some of these different main parts describe the same period, each adding a different perspective to that period. This is called ‘recapitulation’. In this view, both the seven seals and the seven trumpets cover the period from the cross to the return of Christ.
Another view is that the visions of Revelation are listed in a strict chronological sequence FROM BEGINNING TO END, with only one final climax at the end of the book. In this view:
The seventh seal includes the seven trumpets, and
The seventh trumpet includes the seven plagues.
The purpose of this article is specifically to determine whether the seventh seal includes the seven trumpets.
The following arguments support the view that the seventh seal DOES include the seven trumpets:
CHAPTER AND VERSE DIVISIONS
The person who numbered the text of Revelation included the seventh seal in a new chapter with the trumpets. This, perhaps, imply that the seventh seal consists of the seven trumpets. However, chapter and verse divisions are not inspired. They were added in the 13th century after Christ.
NO ACTION IN THE SEVENTH
Nothing happens when the seventh seal is broken—only silence for 30 minutes (Rev 8:1). The same applies to the seventh trumpet – nothing happens – except that God is praised for haven taken control of the world (Rev 11:16). The fact that there is no specific action in the seventh seal or in the seventh trumpet may support the view that their real action is described in the next series of seven.
On the other hand, the following observations OPPOSE the view that the seven trumpets are part of the seventh seal:
1) DIFFERENT THEMES
The themes of the seals and the trumpets are very different:
The seals are about God’s people; their experience on earth and how the Son of God redeems them (e.g. Rev 6:9; 7:3; 7:14). The only place where the seals mention unbelievers is in the sixth seal – at Christ’s return – where they hide in the mountains “from the presence of Him who sits on the throne” (Rev 6:16).
In contrast, the trumpets focus on those who oppose God (e.g., Rev 8:13) – a phrase used by Revelation for the people who do not have the seal of God (Rev 9:4) and who rejoice over the death of the two witnesses (Rev 11:10). The torment of the trumpets is the work of these “two prophets” (Rev 11:10) who “stand before the Lord of the earth” (Rev 11:4).
Since the themes are so vastly different, the trumpets cannot be part of the seals.
2) THE SEALS END WITH THE NEW WORLD.
The sixth seal commences with the heavenly signs of Jesus’ second coming (Rev 6:12-14; cf. Matt 24:29-30). It continues to describe the day of the Lord, namely, “the great day of their wrath” (Rev 6:17).
After an interruption (Rev 7:1-8), the sixth seal continues in Rev 7:9 by describing God’s people standing before His throne (Rev 7:9, 15). They are the answer to the question at the very end of the sixth chapter: “Who is able to stand?” (Rev 6:17) They are led by the Lamb to the water of life (Rev 7:17).
It should, therefore, be clear that “the end of the age” (Dan 12:13) has arrived; including Christ’s second corning, the Millennium, judgment, and “a new heaven and a new earth” (Rev 21:1).
Since the sixth seal brings in the “new earth,” the silence of the seventh seal must be even later. Another article interprets the seventh seal as the sorrow in God’s heart when the lost are put to death when Christ returns (Rev 19:21). It follows, since the trumpets describe the old world of sin and sorrow, that the seventh seal cannot include the trumpets.
3) THE SEVEN WARS BEGIN WITH JESUS’ BIRTH.
In the seventh trumpet, “the kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord” (Rev 11:15). This is, then, “the end of the age” (Rev 12:13). But Revelation 12, which begins the next main vision (the seven wars), jumps back to the time when Christ was born (Rev 12:2; 12:5). Since this happens in the switch from the trumpets to the wars, the same could also happen in the switch from the seals to the trumpets.
4) BOTH THE SEALS AND THE WARS BEGIN AND END WITH JESUS.
The seals begin with Jesus’s enthronement in heaven after His ascension and reach to Christ’s second coming and (perhaps) even beyond. Thus the seals cover the entire Christian era.
The vision of the seven wars (chapters 12 to 14) does the same. It begins with a woman giving birth to a male child (Rev 12:5), which refers to Jesus’ birth, and concludes at the end of Revelation 14 with the harvest, which is Christ’s return (Rev 14:14). The vision of the seven wars, therefore, also covers the entire Christian era.
Consequently, the question is not whether Revelation uses recapitulation—that much is clear. The question is, rather, whether the trumpets recapitulate the seals and the wars. Since the two main parts of Revelation, one before and one after the trumpets, both cover the whole Christian era, and since the seals, the trumpets, and the wars conclude with Christ’s return, it is very likely that the trumpets also cover the whole church age.
5) THE SEALS, TRUMPETS, AND WARS ALL COVER THE TIME, TIMES, AND HALF A TIME.
Both the seven trumpets (Rev 8-11) and the seven wars (Rev 12-14) cover the period known as the “time, times, and a half” (Rev 11:2, 3; 12:6, 14; 13:6). Everywhere in Daniel (Dan 7:25; 12:7) and in Revelation, this is the period of persecution of God’s people. Since the seals are about God’s people, and particularly about their persecution (cf. Rev 6:9; 7:14), the seals necessarily also cover this period. That would mean that the seven seals, trumpets, and wars all cover this same important period of a “time, times, and a half.” In other words, the seals, trumpets, and wars CANNOT symbolize consecutive events.
The interpretation of the “time, times, and a half” is critical to correctly understanding the prophecies. The article – The beast – identifies this as the period of the persecution of God’s people by the church of the Middle Ages.
6) THE CHIASTIC STRUCTURE
Revelation 8:2-6 is the introduction to the trumpets. This passage has a literary structure called a chiasm. In such a structure, the first element corresponds to the last, and the second to the second-to-last, etc. The chiastic structure in these verses is as follows:
A Seven angels with seven trumpets (2) B Angel, altar, censer (3a) C Incense, prayers of the saints (3b) D Altar before the throne (3c) C’ Incense, prayers of the saints (4) B’ Angel, censer, altar (5) A’ Seven angels with seven trumpets (6)
This means that Revelation 8:2-6 forms a self-contained unit and Revelation 8:1 does not have a place in this chiastic structure, which implies that 8:1 does not form part of the trumpets.
7) RECAPITULATION IN DANIEL
A strong relationship exists between the Book of Revelation and the Book of Daniel. For example:
The beast from the sea (Rev 13:1-2) is directly linked to the four beasts of Daniel 7.
The important period of a “time, times and a half,” found in Revelation 11:2-3, 12:6; 12:14, and 13:5, is first mentioned in Daniel 7:25.
Revelation 10 is a continuation of Daniel 12. (Compare the oaths in Daniel 12:7 and Rev 10:5-6).
Both books belong to the same type of literature, namely, apocalyptic prophecy. These are the only two predominantly apocalyptic books in the Bible.
It is generally accepted that the visions in Daniel build on each other—each providing additional insights concerning periods covered by previous visions. Since Revelation is built on Daniel, we might also expect recapitulation in the Apocalypse.
8) SATAN’S OBJECTIONS REFUTED
The seventh seal describes what happens when the seventh seal of the book is broken. Since the book had seven seals (Rev 5:1) preventing the beings in heaven from reading it (Rev 5:3), when the seventh seal is broken, they are able to read the book. The silence of the seventh seal (Rev 8:1) must be the consequence of reading the book.
Breaking the seals means to refute Satan’s objections. When the seventh seal is broken, it means that all of Satan’s accusations have been refuted.
In this interpretation, since God will execute His judgments when Christ returns, God delays Christ’s return UNTIL Satan has been FULLY refuted. Therefore, when the seventh seal is broken, and God’s judgments are fully explained, there remains no further reason to delay the execution of His judgments. Consequently:
2) The trumpets, describing the disasters of the old earth, CANNOT be part of the seventh seal but describe an earlier time.
9) A LITERAL READING IS SELF-CONTRADICTORY.
The idea that the seven trumpets are included in the seventh seal is part of a strictly literal and chronological interpretation of Revelation. But such an interpretation is self-contradictory. For example:
In the first trumpet, ALL the green grass is burned up (Rev 8:7). But, in the fifth trumpet (Rev 9:4), the grass is protected.
Similarly, in the sixth seal (Rev 6:12-14) the stars fall to the earth, but the people still hide in the mountains (Rev 6:15). And, in the fourth trumpet and in the fourth plague, these heavenly bodies are still in place (Rev 8:12; 16:8).
These are just some of the MANY contradictions that would result from a strictly literal and chronological reading of the text.
The trumpets are not part of the seventh seal.
The seven seals, the seven trumpets, and the seven wars each begin at the time of Christ and conclude with His return. They all cover the entire church age.