Did Paul, in 1 Corinthians 8:6, include Jesus into the Shema?

Summary

ShemaThe Shema

Hear, O Israel!
The LORD is our God,
the LORD is one
!”

(Deuteronomy 6:4)

In contrast to the many gods of the surrounding nations, this verse (called the Shema) declares that there is only one true God, and His name is YHVH.

1 Corinthians 8:6

1 Corinthians 8:4 effectively repeats the Shema, saying:

There is no God but one.

Verse 6 identifies who that one God is:

“There is but one God, the Father,
       from whom are all things and we exist for Him;
and one Lord, Jesus Christ,
       by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.”

This verse contrasts the Father and the Son in both their titles and in their functions:

Different titles Different roles
One God, the Father From whom are all things
One Lord, Jesus Christ By whom are all things

1 Corinthians 8:6 has always been a favorite proof text for Unitarians (as opposed to Trinitarians) for it identifies the Father alone as God, which means that Jesus is not God. But Trinitarians counter this conclusion with the following arguments:

(A) The Son co-created the universe with God.

Father and SonAccording to 1 Corinthians 8:6, the Son co-created the universe with “God, the Father.” From this, Trinitarians conclude that Jesus must be God. However, that verse, and other similar verses (John 1:3, Col 1:16, and Heb 1:2), identify the Father as the Great Source of all things—the uncaused Cause—and identify the Son as the Means through whom God created. For example, according to Hebrews 1:1-3, in some mysterious way, “God” made the world “through” His Son.

(B) “God” and “Lord” are synonyms.

ShemaTrinitarians secondly argue that first-century Jews (such as Paul) understood “one God” and “one Lord” as synonymous and that this is confirmed by the fact that Paul referred to the Father both as “God” and as “Lord.” Therefore, Trinitarians argue, when Paul described Jesus as “one Lord,” he also identified Him as God. This article responds with two counterarguments:

The word that is translated as “Lord” is kurios. This title means “lord” (e.g., Acts 15:26) or “master” (e.g., Mark 13:35) or “owner” (e.g., Matt 20:8). This title, therefore, may be applied to God and Jesus and to human beings without saying that they are all God.

Furthermore, the Father appointed Jesus as Lord of the universe. For example, Peter said, “God has made Him both Lord and Christ” (Acts 2:36; cf. Phil 2:9-11). Since God appointed Jesus as Lord over all, the Son will always remain subordinate to the Father and the Father will always remain His God, for example: “The God of our Lord Jesus Christ” (Eph 1:17; cf. Rev 3:12).

(C) Corinthians includes the Son into the Shema.

The third proof which Trinitarians find in 1 Corinthians 8:6, for the claim that Jesus is God, is to argue that that verse intentionally distributes the words of the Shema between the Father and the Son:

The “God” of the Shema becomes
One God, the Father.”

The “LORD” of the Shema becomes
One Lord, Jesus Christ.”

Therefore, Trinitarians propose, Paul included Jesus into the unique divine identity of the Yahweh of the Old Testament. They do not claim that Paul presented Jesus as a second God, but that he redefined monotheism as Christological monotheism. In other words, the unique identity of Yahweh of the Shema CONSISTS OF BOTH the “one God” and the “one Lord.

However, for the following reasons, Paul did not redistribute the words of the Shema between the Father and Jesus to include Jesus into the Yahweh of the Old Testament:

(1) 1 Corinthians 8:4-6 explicitly identifies only the Father as God.

1 Corinthians 8:4-6 says, “there is no God but one” and then explicitly identifies only the Father as God: “For us there is but one God, the Father.” By implication, Jesus is not God.

(2) Other “one God” statements do the same.

1 Corinthians 8:6 is just one of a number of Paul’s “one God” statements in which he applies the Shema within the Christian context, but in all of such statements, the Father alone is God. For example:

There is one God,
and one mediator also between God and men,
the man Christ Jesus
” (1 Tim 2:5; cf. Eph 4:5-6).

(3) Paul consistently identified the Father alone as God.

If Paul thought that Jesus was God, he would have written that frequently and clearly. However, Paul consistently identified the Father alone as God. For example, he opens every one of his letters with phrases that distinguish between God and Jesus and identify God as the Father, e.g.:

Grace to you and peace from God our Father
and the Lord Jesus Christ
” (1 Cor 1:3; cf. Phil 4:19-20).

(4) 1 Corinthians 8:6 describes Jesus as subordinate to the Father.

As discussed, 1 Corinthians 8:6 emphasizes the distinction between the Father and the Son by describing God (the Father) as the ultimate Source of all things, while Jesus is the Means by which God works. Jesus, therefore, is not only distinct from God; He is also functionally subordinate to the Father. This is also a consistent teaching of the New Testament. For example:

Christ is the head of every man,
and the man is the head of a woman,
and God is the head of Christ

(1 Cor 11:3; cf. 1 Cor 3:23).

(5) The Trinitarian interpretation contradicts the Shema.

The main point of the Shema is monotheism, namely that “YHWH, our God, YHWH is one.” In the New Testament, the Father and Jesus are two Persons with two separate wills. For example, in the night before He was crucified, He prayed, “Father, if You are willing, remove this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Yours be done” (Luke 22:42; cf. Mark 15:34). Since the Father and the Son are separate Persons with separate wills, to understand 1 Corinthians 8:6 as saying that YHVH is actually two Persons would be to contradict the Shema.

The articles on Christology are listed at the end of this article. 

– END OF SUMMARY – 


The Shema

Hear, O Israel!
The LORD is our God,
the LORD is one
!”

(Deuteronomy 6:4)

This is called the Shema after the first word (hear), which is Shema in Hebrew. It is the best-known verse in Judaism. In contrast to the many gods of the surrounding nations, the Shema declares that there is only one true god, and His name is YHVH.

LORD” is in all capitals. This means that it translates God’s personal name YHVH, pronounced as Yahweh or Jehovah. (Strangely, modern translators seem to follow the ancient Jewish practice of not mentioning God’s name.)

1 Corinthians 8:4-6

1 Corinthians 8:4 effectively repeats the Shema, saying:

There is no God but one.

Verse 6 identifies who that one god is, namely the Father. Consider 1 Corinthians 8:4-6 more fully:

4 There is no God but one.
5
… indeed there are many gods and many lords,

6 yet for us there is but one God, the Father,
       from whom are all things and we exist for Him;
and one Lord, Jesus Christ,
       by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.

This verse sets three contrasts:

    • Between pagan gods and pagan lords.
    • Between the many pagan gods and lords and
      the one true god and lord.
    • Between the Father and Son.

Verse 6 contrasts the Father and the Son in both their titles and in their functions:

Different titles Different roles
One God, the Father From whom are all things;
We exist for Him.
One Lord, Jesus Christ By whom are all things;
We exist through Him.

1 Corinthians 8:6 has always been a favorite proof text for Unitarians (as opposed to Trinitarians) for it identifies the Father alone as God, which means that Jesus is not God. But Trinitarians counter this conclusion with the following arguments:

(A) The Son co-created the universe with God.

According to 1 Corinthians 8:6, the Son co-created the universe with “God, the Father.” From this, Trinitarians conclude that Jesus must be God. However, with respect to creation, that verse ascribes different roles to the Father and the Son:

The phrase “from whom are all things” identifies the Father as the Great Source of all things; the uncaused Cause.

The phrase “by whom are all things” identifies the Son as the Means through whom God created.

John 1:3, Colossians 1:16, and Hebrews 1:2 also describe the roles of the Father and the Son in creation. Similar to 1 Corinthians 8:6, these verses identify the Father as the Great Source of all things—the uncaused Cause. They also describe the Son as having a passive role in creation, namely as the Means through whom God created all things:”

According to Hebrews 1:1-3, in some mysterious way, “God” made the world “through” His Son.

John 1:3 also claims that “all things” came into being “through” the Word (Christ).

As discussed in the article on Colossians, the same applies to Colossians 1:16.

This means that both the Father and the Son have existed for as long as time has existed. However, scientists claim that time began 13 billion years ago through the Big Bang. We know nothing of the incomprehensible reality that exists outside our universe of space, time, and matter. But what we do know is that the power and energy, which caused our universe to come into existence, came from that incomprehensible reality. This knowledge, which church leaders did not know when the Trinity doctrine was formulated in the fourth to sixth centuries, helps us to understand the distinction between Jesus and God.

For a further discussion, see – God created all things.

(B) “God” and “Lord” are synonyms.

To counter the implications of 1 Corinthians 8:6, Trinitarians secondly argue as follows that the titles “God” and “Lord” are synonyms:

They argue that first-century Jews (such as Paul) understood “one God” and “one Lord” as synonymous and interchangeable; both referring to the same divine being, namely Yahweh.

They find support for this view in the fact that Paul, in his many writings, refer to the Father both as “God” and as “Lord.”

Therefore, Trinitarians argue, when Paul described Jesus as “one Lord,” he also identified Him as God. This article responds with two counterarguments:

Kurios means “lord.”

The word that is translated as “Lord” (kurios in Greek) means “lord” (e.g., Acts 15:26) or “master” (e.g., Mark 13:35) or “owner” (e.g., Matt 20:8). This title, therefore, may be applied to God and to Jesus and to a human being without saying that they are all God.

The Father appointed Jesus as Lord.

Although 1 Corinthians 8:6 identifies Jesus as Lord, this does not mean that He is God or equal to God, for God appointed the Son as “Lord.” For example:

At Pentecost, Peter said to the Jews,
God has made Him both Lord and Christ” (Acts 2:36).

God highly exalted Him … so that …
every tongue will confess
that Jesus Christ is Lord
” (Phil 2:9-11).

God … raised Him from the dead
and
seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places …
And He put all things in subjection under His feet

(Eph 1:17-22; cf. Matt 28:18).

Since God appointed Jesus as Lord over all, the Son will always remain subordinate to the Father. Jesus is not “co-equal” with the Father, as the Trinity doctrine claims. The Father will always remain His God, for example:

The God of our Lord Jesus Christ
(Eph 1:17; cf. 1 Peter 1:3; Rev 1:6; 3:2, 12).

(C) Corinthians includes the Son into the Shema.

A third proof which Trinitarians find in 1 Corinthians 8:6, for the claim that Jesus is God, is to argue that that verse intentionally distributes the words of the Shema between the Father and the Son:

The “God” of the Shema becomes
One God, the Father.”

The “LORD” of the Shema becomes
One Lord, Jesus Christ.”

Therefore, Trinitarians propose, Paul included Jesus into the unique divine identity of the Yahweh of the Old Testament. They do not claim that Paul presented Jesus as a second God, but that he redefined monotheism as Christological monotheism. In other words, the unique identity of Yahweh of the Shema CONSISTS OF BOTH the “one God” and the “one Lord.

The question, therefore, is, did Paul really redistribute the words of the Shema between the Father and Jesus in 1 Corinthians 8:6 to include Jesus into the Yahweh of the Old Testament? Did Paul purposefully apply the title “Lord” from the Shema to Jesus? For the following reasons, this is not the case:

(1) 1 Corinthians 8:6 identifies God as the Father only.

1 Corinthians 8:4 restates the Shema, saying, “there is no God but one.” Then verse 6 continues by using the titles “God” and “Lord” to differentiate between the Father and the Son, explicitly identifying only the Father as God:

For us there is but one God, the Father.”

By implication, Jesus is not God. This distinction between the Father as God and the Son as Lord is a consistent pattern in the New Testament. The article on Colossians, for example, shows that that letter:

    • Uses the title theos always for the Father;
      never for the Son and
    • Uses the title kurios (lord or master) always for the Son;
      never for the Father.

(2) Other “one God” statements do the same.

1 Corinthians 8:6 is one of a number of Paul’s “one God” statements. It would be fair to assume that, with these statements, he applied the Shema, with which he, as a Pharisee, was intimately familiar, within a Christian context. But in all of such “one God’ statements, the Father alone is God, for example:

There is one God,
and one mediator also between God and men,
the man Christ Jesus
” (1 Tim 2:5).

One Lord, one faith, one baptism,
one God
and Father of all who is over all” (Eph 4:5-6);

(3) Paul consistently identified the Father alone as God.

If Paul thought that Jesus was God, that would have been important information and he would have written that frequently and clearly. However, Paul consistently identified the Father alone as God. For example, he opens every one of his letters with phrases that distinguish between God and Jesus and identify God as the Father, e.g.:

Grace to you and peace from God our Father
and the Lord Jesus Christ
” (1 Cor 1:3).

Elsewhere, we find phrases such as “our God and Father” (Phil 4:19-20) and “the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory” (Eph 1:17; cf. 1 Tim 6). (For more detail, see Jesus is not God).

(4) Jesus is subordinate to the Father.

As discussed, 1 Corinthians 8:6 emphasizes the distinction between the Father and the Son by describing God (the Father) as the ultimate Source of all things (“from whom are all things”), while Jesus is the Means by which God works (“by whom are all things”). Jesus, therefore, is not only distinct from God; He is also functionally subordinate to the Father. This is also a consistent teaching of the New Testament. For example:

You belong to Christ;
and Christ belongs to God
” (1 Cor 3:23). OR

Christ is the head of every man,
and the man is the head of a woman,
and God is the head of Christ

(1 Cor 11:3; cf. 1 Cor 15:28).

A further indication, that Jesus is subordinate to the Father, is that the Father is also His God (Matt 27:46; John 20:17). Even many years after His resurrection and enthronement, both Revelation and Paul refer to the Father as His God:

He has made us to be …
priests to His God and Father

(Rev 1:6; cf. Rev 3:2, 12; Eph 1:17).

For a further discussion, see – Head of Christ.

(5) The Trinitarian interpretation contradicts the Shema.

In the Trinitarian interpretation of 1 Corinthians 8:6, Paul contradicted the Shema. The main point of the Shema is monotheism, namely that “YHWH, our God, YHWH is one.” In the New Testament, the Father and Jesus are two Persons with two separate wills. For example:

Jesus prayed to His Father. “He spent the whole night in prayer to God” (Luke 6:12; cf. John 17:1).

In the night before He was crucified, He prayed, “Father, if You are willing, remove this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Yours be done” (Luke 22:42).

The next day, hanging on the Cross, cried out “my God, my God, why have You forsaken me” (Mark 15:34).

(6) The Holy Spirit is not mentioned.

If 1 Corinthians 8:6 explains God, and if the Trinity includes the Holy Spirit, why does this verse not mention the Holy Spirit?

(8) The title “Lord” does not appear in the Shema.

The Shema theory proposes that the words from the Shema, describing YHVH, are redistributed between the Father and the Son, identifying the Son as the “one Lord.” However, the word “Lord” is not found in the Shema. The word in the Shema, which is translated as “the LORD,” is God’s name YHVH.

The counter-argument would be that YHVH is translated as Kurios (Lord) in the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Testament), and that the Septuagint was the translation of the Old Testament generally used when Paul wrote. However, HO KYRIOS (the lord) was never exactly synonymous with YHVH. It replaced YHVH when the Jews developed the practice of not mentioning the name of God. Paul was well-educated, and he would have known the difference.

The Dangers of the Trinity Doctrine

(1) The Trinity doctrine is polytheistic.

Since the Father and the Son are separate Persons with separate wills, to understand 1 Corinthians 8:6 as saying that YHVH is actually two Persons would be to contradict the Shema. While Christianity prides in worshipping one God (monotheism), the Trinity doctrine argues that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are three separate Persons. This compromises monotheism and risks us to a polytheistic belief system. To say that there are three separate Gods with one substance or being is not what the monotheism of the Bible teaches.

(2) God is presented as severe and unforgiving.

The article on Colossians shows that the Father is the active force in redemption and that He redeems people through His Son. The doctrine of the Trinity has led to atonement theories according to which God is not loving or willing to forgive sin, but has to be persuaded by his Son to forgive. In contrast, such theories present Jesus Christ as kind and merciful and pleading on our behalf before God. To present God in this light is a most grievous sin, for to worship a cruel god, even if one uses the right names, is to worship a false god.

Furthermore, we are saved through faith. Faith is not simply to believe that God exists. Faith means to also trust God. It is not possible to trust a cruel, tyrannical, and arbitrary god. I would say that God’s purpose in giving us the revelations, as contained in the Bible, is to give us hope and to build humanity morally. The theory that God is severe and demanding distorts God’s word. 

(3) Jesus did not die.

We are saved by Christ’s death but the Trinity doctrine tesches that Jesus did not really die. In the Trinity theory, the Son was actually two persons with two natures; a divine and a human nature. While His human nature suffered on the cross and died, His divine nature did not and cannot suffer or die.

(4) The Trinity doctrine led to Mariology.

The adoration of Mary as the Mother of God is a natural consequence of the teaching that Christ is God, the Son.

Final Conclusions

1 Corinthians 8:6 is one of the verses in which Paul applies the Shema in the Christian context. In all such instances, the Father alone is God.

The Father as the Great Source of all things—the uncaused Cause. The Son is the Means through whom God created.

The word that kurios (often translated “Lord”) means “master.

 Paul did not redistribute the words of the Shema between the Father and Jesus to include Jesus into the Yahweh of the Old Testament,

The Dangers of the Trinity Doctrine include polytheism, presented God as severe and unforgiving, teaching that Christ did not really die and led to Mariology.

Available Articles – Christology

Summary Articles

Specific Bible Books

Specific Bible Passages

The origin of the Son

Christ is subordinate to God.

Christ is equal to God.

Jesus is called God.

      • Overview – Overview of the verses that refer to Jesus as theos.
      • Theos – The meaning of theos – the word translated “God.”
      • John 1:18 – The original text of this verse is in dispute.
      • John 20:28 – Did Thomas say that Jesus is God?
      • John’s gospel – Discussion of theos in this gospel.
      • Romans 9:5 – The translation depends on punctuation.
      • Hebrews 1:8 – The next verse says that God is His theos.

The translation of John 1:1

Other

If you are interested in Christology, I recommend Dale Tuggy’s podcasts, even though he understands Christ vastly different from me.

Other Articles Series

Daniel

Revelation

Other Key Articles

For general discussions of theology, I recommend Graham Maxwell, who you will find on the Pineknoll website.

Jesus is subordinate to the Father. He called the Father “My God” and prayed to Him.

This article has been improved and incorporated into a summary article on the Subordination of the Son. The reader is advised to rather read that article.

Purpose

Head of ChristThis is one of the series of articles that analyze John’s view of Jesus. In this article, it is shown that, throughout John’s gospel, Jesus is subordinate to the Father. He received everything He has from the Father, including His ability to give life to the dead, to judge, and to be honored. He prayed to the Father and referred to the Father as His God.

The title “Son,” by itself already indicates that Jesus is subordinate to the Father; not only after He became a human being for, before His birth, the Father created all things “through” the Son and “sent” the Son into this world, giving Him what to say and do. Also, to be the Judge, after He returned to the Father, He received from the Father.

Previous articles in this series include:

Did John refer to Jesus as theos (god) in John 1:18?  
Did Thomas call Jesus “my God” in John 20:28?  
Is Jesus called God in John?  
Did Jesus claim to be God? 
He and the Father are one. Is Jesus God?  

Summary

Jesus referred to the Father as “the only true God” and as “My God and your God.” He also prayed to the Father.

God created all things “through” Jesus. The word “through” implies that Jesus is not an independent Creator. Rather, all creative Power and Wisdom are from the Father.

The Father sent Jesus to accomplish the Father’s purposes. The Father gave Jesus His work, and Jesus did “exactly as the Father commanded.”  The Father also gave Jesus His teachings:

The Father Himself who sent Me
has given Me a commandment
as to what to say and what to speak
.”

The Father draws people to Himself and gave to Jesus His disciples.

The Father made Jesus to be the Judge:

So that all will honor the Son
even as they honor the Father
.”

God highly exalted Him,
and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name,
so that at the name of Jesus EVERY KNEE WILL BOW …
to the glory of God the Father.”

The Father gave the Son to have life in Himself so that “the Son also gives life to whom He wishes.”  Jesus said, “I Myself will raise him up on the last day.”  The Father “gave Him authority over all flesh, that … He may give eternal life.”

The Father gave Jesus authority to take His own life up again, after His death, for “this commandment I received from My Father.”

The Father loves the Son and has given all things into His hand.”  Everything which Jesus has, He received from the Father.  John consistently presents Jesus as subordinate to the Father.  The teaching that Jesus is co-equal to God is inconsistent with such statements.

– END OF SUMMARY –

The Father sent Jesus.

In John’s gospel, Jesus says perhaps forty times that the Father sent Him. For example:

I have not even come on My own initiative,
but He sent Me
” (John 8:42).  

The word which you hear is not Mine,
but the Father’s who sent Me
” (John 14:24).

My food is to do the will of Him who sent Me and to accomplish His work” (John 4:34; cf. 3:16-17, 34; 5:24, 30, 36-38; 6:29, 32-33, 44, 57; 7:18, 28-29, 33; 8:16, 26, 29, 42; 9:4; 11:42; 12:44, 45; 13:20; 14:24; 15:21; 16:5; 17:3, 6, 8, 18; 20:21)

Jesus said that the Father sent Him as a claim that He is a true teacher, for instance: 

I knew that You always hear Me;
but because of the people standing around I said it,
so that they may believe that You sent Me
” (John 11:42).

Today, this is no longer a difficulty for us to accept. But we make the opposite error, for we make Jesus co-equal to the Father.

The Father gave Jesus His disciples.

No one can come to Me
unless the Father who sent Me draws him;
and I will raise him up on the last day

(John 6:44; cf. 6:65).

The men whom You gave Me out of the world;
they were Yours and You gave them to Me

(John 17:6; cf. 6:38, 39).

In the parable of the true vine (John 15) the Father is the One that works: “My Father is the vinedresser” (John 15:1). It is the Father who cuts away branches that do not bear fruit and prunes other branches “so that it may bear more fruit” (John 15:2; cf. 17:2, 9, 24; 10:29).  Sometimes, we think of Jesus as the Redeemer, and that is true, but we need to remember that Jesus is the Means of redemption, while the Father is the driver of redemption:

It was the Father’s good pleasure
for all the fullness to dwell in Him
,
and through Him (Jesus)
to reconcile all things to Himself
” (Col 1:19-20).

The Father gave Jesus His work.

I do exactly as the Father commanded Me
(John 14:31; cf. 15:10; 6:38).

The Son can do nothing of Himself,
unless it is something He sees the Father doing;
for whatever the Father does,
these things the Son also does in like manner

(John 5:19).

At the end of His ministry, Jesus said to God that He has “accomplished the work which You have given Me to do” (John 17:4).

The Father gave Jesus His teachings.

I do nothing on My own initiative,
but I speak these things as the Father taught Me

(John 8:28; cf. 14:24; 7:16).

You are seeking to kill Me,
a man who has told you the truth,
which I heard from God

(John 8:40; cf. 8:26, 38).

I did not speak on My own initiative,
but the Father Himself who sent Me
has given Me a commandment
as to what to say and what to speak

(John 12:49; cf. 17:8, 14; 15:15).

The Father made Jesus be Judge.

The Father … has given all judgment to the Son,
so that all will honor the Son
even as they honor the Father.
He who does not honor the Son
does not honor the Father who sent Him

(John 5:22-23; cf. John 5:27).

The words “so that” mean that Jesus will be honored because the Father “has given all judgment to the Son” (John 5:22-23). Jesus, therefore, receives glory because it is the Father’s will. This we also see in the following:

Father, I desire that they also,
whom You have given Me,
be with Me where I am,
so that they may see My glory
which You have given Me
” (John 17:24).

Now, Father, glorify Me together with Yourself,
with the glory which I had with You
before the world was
” (John 17:5).

God highly exalted Him,
and bestowed on Him the name
which is above every name,
so that at the name of Jesus
EVERY KNEE WILL BOW
” (Phil 2:9-10).

(This is not a quote from John, but is an important support for this point.)

The words “with you” in John 17:5 imply that Jesus does not receive glory and honor independent from the Father. As we see in Revelation 5, God and Jesus are worshiped together:

To Him who sits on the throne,
and to the Lamb,
be blessing and honor and glory and dominion

(Rev 5:13).

And in Philippians 2 it is stated that every knee will bow to Jesus to the glory of God the Father” (Phil 2:11). 

The Father gave the Son life in Himself.

Jesus gives life to who He wishes:

Just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life,
even so the Son also gives life to whom He wishes

(John 5:21; cf. 11:25-26).

This is the will of My Father,
that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him
will have eternal life,
and I Myself will raise him up on the last day

(John 6:40; cf. 5:28-29; 6:44).

He received that ability from God:

An hour is coming and now is,
when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God,
and those who hear will live.
For just as the Father has life in Himself,
even so He gave to the Son also
to have life in Himself
” (John 5:25-26).

You gave Him authority over all flesh,
that to all whom You have given Him,
He may give eternal life
” (John 17:2).

The Father gave Jesus all things.

The Father loves the Son
and has given all things into His hand
” (John 3:35).

Jesus, knowing that the Father
had given all things into His hands,
and that He had come forth from God
and was going back to God
” (John 13:3).

The Father gave Jesus to take up His life.

No one has taken it (My life) away from Me,
but I lay it down on My own initiative.
I have authority to lay it down,
and I have authority to take it up again.
This commandment I received from My Father.

(John 10:18)

The Father is Jesus’ God.

Jesus in Revelation 1
Also in Revelation Jesus referred to the Father as “My God.”

Jesus referred to the Father as:

The only true God” (John 17:3), and as
My God and your God” (John 20:17).

He also prayed to God (John 17).  For instance, He asked the Father to give the Spirit to His disciples (John 14:16-17) and that His disciples might “be with Me where I am” (John 17:24).

God created through Jesus.

Jesus created all things:

All things came into being through Him,
and apart from Him nothing came into being
that has come into being
” (John 1:3).

The world was made through Him“ (John 1:10).

Those who oppose the claim that Jesus created all things argue that these verses describe “the Word,” which they interpret as a personification of God’s Wisdom and Plan, which became manifested in the person of Jesus Christ. But we also find statements in Colossians 1:16 and in Hebrews 1:2 that God created all things through Jesus.  Furthermore, in another article, “the Word” was identified as the preexistent Jesus. These seem to be sufficient proof that Jesus participated in creation.

The word “through” in these verses implies that it was God who created and assigns a passive role to Christ. God created “through” Jesus, as is also explicitly stated in Hebrews 1:2. Jesus, therefore, is not an independent Creator; but the Means of creation: Creative Power and Wisdom flowed from God through His Son. God not only created all things through His Son; the Son also upholds all things (Col 1:17; Heb 1:3). This implies an extremely close relationship between the Son and “all things.”  It is proposed, therefore, that by giving “birth” to Jesus, as His “only begotten Son,” God brought forth all things.

Jesus is subordinate to the Father. 

In conclusion, everything which Jesus has, He received from the Father. The teaching that Jesus is co-equal to God is inconsistent with such statements.

Other articles

Nature of Christ – Is Jesus God?

Book of Daniel

Book of Revelation

Other important articles