Is Jesus the Most High God? – List of articles on this website

PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE

Gabriel said to Mary that Jesus “will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High” (Luke 1:26-32). In the Trinity theory, Jesus and the Father are two co-equal Persons of the same Being. This would mean that the Son is also “Most High.”

Recently, I organized my articles and found that I have written about 40 articles on the nature of Christ.  In the current article, I provide a list of those articles with brief descriptions. I also wrote another nearly 20 articles on the historical development of the Trinity doctrine.

While the current article is simply a list of the articles, the article – Jesus is not the God, but He is God – is a summary of these articles and provides more detailed arguments

VIEWS OF CHRIST

There are many views of the nature of Christ. They vary from Jesus as merely a human being, to the view that the Son is fully equal to and one with the Father, as in the Trinity doctrine. Between these two extremes, there are many other views, including the one proposed by this website, namely that Jesus always existed but only the Father is the Almighty uncaused Cause of all things.

I think that one of the reasons so many people adopt the Trinity formula without much thinking is that they find it difficult to understand how the Son can be both infinite and subordinate to God. For that reason, I attempt below to show how this is possible. In doing so, I am at risk, because I will be using terminology that is not found in the Bible. May God not hold that against me:

EXPLANATION

The Most High does not exist in time. He is not subject to time. Rather, the time, space, and matter of the universe exist somewhere inside Him.

Beyond this universe, there is an infinity. The intelligence and power through which this universe was created came from outside the time and space boundaries of the universe. That infinity is the Most High. Things exist because He exists (Rev 4:11).

Christ “is the Beginning (Col 1:18) of this universe. In other words, in order to bring forth this universe, the Most High has “begotten” the Son. This is why we read that God created all things THROUGH the Son. The Most High not only created all things through the Son; through the Son, He also upholds all things (Heb 1:3).

Jesus is the connection between God and the universe. Through Jesus, all creative and sustaining power flows from the Most High to the universe, and through Jesus, all thanksgiving and praise flow from the intelligent beings back to God.  “Every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

CONSEQUENTLY

The Son is not the uncaused Cause of all things. He is not “Most High.”

The Son always existed for God also created time by begetting His Son.

Jesus is the God of the Old Testament.  Every visible and personal appearance of God in the Old Testament is an appearance of Jesus, in the form of God.  See Jesus in the Old Testament.

This is my personal understanding of the nature of Christ. It cannot be confirmed from the Bible because the Bible does not explain Him in such terms.  But the Bible does confirm that Jesus always existed but is subordinate to the Most High, and the proposal above allows for that.

TRUTH TAKEN TOO FAR

I have come to the conclusion that an error is a truth that has been taken too far. For example:

NATURE OF CHRIST

Even after Pentecost, the disciples viewed Christ as merely a man (Acts 2:22). Decades later, the New Testament writers (particularly Paul and John) developed an extremely high view of Christ but still presented Him as subordinate to the Father. But, after the church became the State Church of the Roman Empire, the emperors became the real heads of the formal church and forced the church to take the high view of Christ too far. Consequently, the formal church adopted the doctrine that the Son is equally the Almighty; the uncaused Cause of all things.

PREDESTINATION

Early in the existence of the church, when Jews still dominated the church, the dominant view was that “it is necessary to circumcise them (the Gentiles) and to direct them to observe the Law of Moses” (Acts 15:5).

Paul wrote fervently against the view that man is justified “by the works of the Law” (e.g. Rom 3:19). These “works of the law” refer to the rituals and ceremonies of the law, of which circumcision was the main example (e.g. Gal 6:12). These “works of the Law” are not the same as good deeds.

At the time of the Reformation, Luther and Calvin were confronted with something similar, namely that the Catholic Church demanded that people conform to the rituals of the Church to be saved.  The reformers used Paul’s writings powerfully in their arguments.

But in their struggles against mother church, they took this truth too far and taught that nothing one does has an influence on salvation.  Consequently, they taught that God decides who will live and who will go to hell, irrespective of what man is or does. They choose to ignore the statements in the Bible that man will be judged by your deeds (E.g. Rom 2:6; Rev 2-:12).

LIST OF ARTICLES ON
THE NATURE OF CHRIST

SUMMARIES

Summary of these articles
Jesus is not God but He is God. Jesus is distinct from God, but always existed. Jesus prayed to God, but we worship Jesus. The Son can do nothing of Himself, but He is equal with God. The Son has life in Himself but received it all from the Father. God created all things, but through Jesus. So, Who is Jesus?

List of articles with brief descriptions
This is the current article. It also proposes how it is possible for the Son to be both eternal and subordinate to the Father.

JESUS IN SPECIFIC BIBLE BOOKS

As part of my investigation, I made detailed studies of three books, namely John’s gospel, Colossians, and the book of Revelation.

The book of Revelation
The article on the book of Revelation argues that t
he ancient Greek word theos is equivalent to the modern word “god.” In contrast, the modern word “God” refers exclusively to the Almighty. That article shows that Revelation uses the titles “God” and “the Almighty” only for the Father. The Father alone is the Creator, the Supreme Ruler of all creation, and the One we must worship. Revelation presents Jesus as subordinate to the Father but infinitely above the created universe.

Colossians Part I
What view does Colossians have of Christ Jesus? Is He called God?  Are we saved by Christ Jesus, or by God?  Who created all things and who reconciled all things; God or Christ Jesus?

Colossians Part II
Is Jesus God? The Most High created all things through Him. Christ still holds all creation together. He is distinct from God, but Jesus rules over all.

JESUS IN SPECIFIC BIBLE PASSAGES

Philippians 2
On the topic of the nature of Christ, this is one of the most important Bible passages. It describes Jesus before, during, and after His life on earth. It says that, before He became a human being, He had equality with God. For some, this means that He is God. For others, it means that He is not God.

1 Corinthians 8:6
Interestingly, the Bible has fairly few explicit statements about the nature of Christ. In the synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark & Luke), except for a few verses that possibly say a bit more, Christ is merely a human being. We find the high Christology statements mostly in the writings of Paul and John. One of the few explicit statements of the nature of Christ is 1 Corinthians 8:6. It makes a clear distinction between the Most High God and the Lord Jesus Christ. The Trinitarian defense against this verse is that it divides the words of the Shema between the Father and the Son.

You make yourself out to be God.
To this accusation (John 10:33), Jesus responded, “I said, ‘I am the Son of God’” Some interpret this as a claim by Jesus that He is God. This article analyzes what the Jews said and what Jesus claimed to be.

I and the Father are one.
This is one of Jesus’ famous statements (John 10:30). Does that mean to be perfected in unity or literally that they are one Being?

ORIGINS

Only Begotten Son
This title does not mean that Jesus is the Most High. However, since Jesus is the “only” begotten from the Father, He is God’s only true family. Because He was “begotten,” He was not created.

Firstborn of all creation
This is how Paul described Jesus in Colossians 1:15. This sounds as if He is part of creation; literally the first creation and/or the most important creation, but still part of creation.

Jesus did exist before He was born.
To become a human being, Jesus emptied Himself of the form of God and of equality with God. This article refutes the idea that Jesus was merely a human being, as proclaimed by Dale Tuggy in his high-quality website and podcast.

God created all things through His Son.
People who believe that Jesus is equal to the Most High need to show that Jesus created all things independent of the Father, but there are several verses that state that God created all things through His Son. In other words, the Most High is the Creator and His Son was the Medium through which He created all things.

JESUS IS SUBORDINATE TO THE FATHER.

Jesus is distinct from God.
This article highlights the differences between God and Jesus. For example, while God is invisible and the Source of all things, Jesus is visible. God refers to Jesus as “My Son” but Jesus refers to God as “My God.” Jesus also prayed to God and is currently at the right hand of God. 

The Almighty
Trinitarians think of Jesus as the Almighty, but they may not be aware that they directly contradict the Bible when they do that (e.g. Rev 19:15; 21:22).

Jesus is subordinate to God.
The Bible teaches explicitly Jesus is subordinate to God. For example:

      • God is the head of Christ” (I Cor 11:3).
      • He was subordinate to God both prior to His birth and after His ascension.
      • Everything that His Son has, He received from His Father.
      • Only the One “whom no man has seen or can see” is essentially “immortal” (1 Tim 6:16).

Jesus is subordinate to God in John’s gospel.
This is the gospel with the highest Christology but still shows that Jesus was subordinate to the Father before He became a human being and still is after He returned to the Father. For example:

      • God gave all judgment to the Son.
      • God gave the Son to have life in Himself.
      • The Father is the only true God.
      • Jesus called the Father “My God” and prayed to Him.

JESUS IS EQUAL WITH GOD.

This section contains articles on the examples of high Christology in the Bible:

Jesus has equality with God.
They work together, create together, own all things together and together they receive equal honor.  Only the Son knows the Father and only the Son sees all things that the Father does. Both are “
I Am,” the King of kings, the Lord of the Sabbath, Creator, and Savior

Jesus has equality with God in John’s gospel.
Evidence from John’s gospel. 
To say that Jesus is both subordinate to equal with the Most High may seem like a contradiction, but it is true. I understand this as follows: When the Father and the Son are compared, the Son is subordinate, but both are infinitely above created beings, and in that sense they are equal.

We must worship Jesus.
The Bible commands us to worship only God, but we must also worship Jesus. Does that mean that He is God? The English word “worship” means “a strong feeling of respect and admiration for God or a god” (Cambridge dictionary). The Greek word is proskuneó. It means that respect is shown towards a god or a fellow human being. 
I also made a list of the worship verses in the New Testament.

DOES THE NEW TESTAMENT
REFER TO JESUS AS GOD?

Several articles discuss specific instances where theos refers to Jesus:

THEOS
The Greek word theos appears about 1300 times in the New Testamenet. In 99.5% of these instances, it refers to the Father. But in about seven instances, it refers to Jesus. This article explains what theos means. There is no word in the ancient Greek that is an exact equivalent to the modern word “God.”

John 1:1 – Introduction
This is the best-known example of Jesus being called God. Jesus not only was in the beginning; He WAS the beginning, and therefore always existed.

John 1:1 – The Word
Does “the Word” refer to Jesus, or is it a personification of the Wisdom of God in creation?

John 1:1 – The Word was a god.
This article argues against this translation, as proposed by Jehovah’s Witnesses. In
support of their translation, Jehovah’s Witnesses argue that theos is a count noun.  Does this mean that John 1:1c must be translated, “the Word was a god?”

John 1:1 – The Word was God.
This translates theos as definite, but this article shows that theos in John 1:1c has a qualitative force and, therefore, should be translated, “the Word was like God.”

John 1:18
The original text of John 1:18 is disputed. Many ancient manuscripts refer to Jesus as huios (son) and not as theos (god). According to the textual critics, both are possible.

John 20:28
Thomas could not have called Jesus “my God” in John 20:28
because Jesus never taught that He is God and because the disciples afterward did not teach that Jesus is God.

Is Jesus called God in John’s gospel?
The title “God” appears more than 100 times in John, and in only 3 instances it could possibly refer to Jesus, and these three instances are debatable.  In other instances, John consistently makes a distinction between God and Jesus

Romans 9:5
Romans everywhere makes a distinction between God and Jesus. 14 translations of Romans 9:5 indicate that Jesus is God and 14 oppose it.  It is all a matter of punctuation, and all punctuation in the Bible is interpretation.

Hebrews 1:8
This verse refers to Jesus as theos but the next verse (Heb 1:9) says that God is His theos. Furthermore, the first verses of Hebrews 1 make an explicit distinction between Jesus and God and represent Jesus as subordinate to God.

Overview
This is an overview of the articles on the instances where the Bible refers to Jesus as theos.

JESUS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

Jesus has always existed. In fact, God created all things through Him.  Therefore, the question arises: Where do we find Jesus in the Old Testament? God is invisible but was seen in the Old Testament. To solve this riddle, this article finds evidence in the Old Testament of two distinct divine beings.

I am fond of listening to Dale Tuggy on this subject. He holds the mere man view of Christ, which I reject, but, generally, his podcasts are of a very good quality.

Is Jesus God? He has equality with God and share God’s divine name and titles.

This article will show that God and Jesus always work together as one.  They have been together from all eternity.  Together they created all things and together they own all things.  They share glory together.  Together they are in believers.  They work together to save, to protect believers and to judge all.

This article provides further evidence of Christ’s equality with Godnamely that Jesus had equality with God prior to His birth.  This means that He today again has equality with God.  They receive equal honor.  As every knee will bow to God, so every knee will bow to Jesus.  He is God’s only Begotten Son, which means that He is God’s only true family.  Only God knows Jesus and only Jesus knows God.  These are profound statements of equality.

God and Jesus share the same name and titles and attributes.  Jesus claimed the divine name “I AM.”  He has many Divine Titles, such as King of kings and Lord of lords, Lord of the Sabbath and Saviour.  Jesus also has many divine attributes.  He is the Truth, eternal and omnipresent.  All the fullness of Deity dwells in Him.  He created all things and has all authority.

God and Jesus work as one.

They have been together from all eternity. 

The beginningIn the beginning was the Word And the Word was with God … He was in the beginning with God” (John 1:1-2).  These verses make a distinction between God and Jesus.  However, Jesus was in the beginning with God, and the beginning was before all things!

God and Jesus together created all things. 

God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness” (Gen. 1:26).  The “Us” and “Our” must refer to God and Jesus, for in John 1:3 we read, “All things came into being through Him (the “Word” – Jesus), and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being”.  In other words, God created all things through His Son.

God and Jesus own all things together.

Jesus said, “All things that the Father has are Mine” (John 16:15).  And, in His prayer, “all things that are Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine” (John 17:10).
Hebrews 1:2 says that God appointed His Son as heir of all things.  This again makes a distinction between God and Jesus, but there is nothing which exists which is not the property of Jesus.

God and Jesus together own and direct the angels. 

The Lord, the God … sent His angel to show to His bond-servants the things which must soon take place” (Rev. 22:6).  But just ten verses later Jesus says “I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things for the churches” (v16).
Luke 12:8-9 refers to the “angels of God,” but in Matthew 13:41 Jesus said, “The Son of Man (Jesus Himself) will send forth His angels.

God and Jesus share glory together. 

Jesus prayed, “Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was” (John 17:5).

God and Jesus work together. 

Jesus answered them, “My Father is working until now” (John 5:17).  The Father upholds the universe and keeps it going; every second and minute and day.  But then Jesus adds, “and I Myself am working” (v17).  If this was not true, this would have been a most arrogant statement of equality.

God and Jesus work together in salvation.

Jesus said, “I am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life; no one comes to the Father except through Me” (John 14:6).  But we also know that “No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him” (John 6:44).  They have always been working together.

God and Jesus together protect believers.

My sheep hear My voice … and no one will snatch them out of My hand. My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand” (John 10:27-29).

God and Jesus live together in believers. 

Jesus said, “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our abode with him (John 14:23, NASB).

They judge as One.  

My judgment is true; for I am not alone in it, but I and the Father who sent Me” (John.8:16).

Conclusion

God and Jesus are distinct.  This has been shown by the article Jesus is not the same Person as God.  The article “God is the Head of Christ” confirms that Jesus is subordinate to God.  We also see this in some of the statements above, such as that God appointed His Son as heir of all things (Heb. 1:2).

But their oneness, as evidenced above, puts the Son far above any created being.  The Bible sometimes refer to Jesus as “God,” but in the article The Bible calls Jesus God it is argued that this does not mean that Jesus is God, for the title “god” is used for any exalted being.  However, the unity of God and Jesus puts Jesus far above the general meaning of the word “god.”  This unity implies that we should regard Jesus as equal to God.

Jesus has equality with God.

The Bible provides us with further evidence that Jesus had equality with God:

Jesus “did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped.

This refers to the time prior to His birth.  See the article Does Philippians 2 say that Jesus emptied Himself of equality with God?  If He had equality with God prior to His birth, He today again has equality with God.

They receive equal honor.

All will honor the Son even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him” (John 5:23, NASB).  That is a profound statement of equality.

Every knee will bow to Jesus.  

every kneeGod identified Himself as the One speaking and says, “to Me every knee will bow” (Isaiah 45:23), but Paul says that to “Jesus every knee should bow” (Phil. 2: 10-11).

Only Begotten Son

This is My beloved SonSince He was “begotten,” He was not created.  The article Only Begotten Son of God shows that this phrase means He is God’s only true family.  The Bible consistently distinguishes between God and Jesus, but, God begets God.

Only God knows Jesus and only Jesus knows God. 

No one knows the Son except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father except the Son” (Mt. 11:27 NASB; cf. Luke 10:22).  This is an amazing statement of equality.

The Father shows the Son all things.

The Father loves the Son, and shows Him all things that He Himself is doing” (John 5:19-20).

Conclusion

God is not comparable to anything we know.  We do not understand God, but perhaps an analogy will explain the equality of God and Jesus better.  A human son is subordinate to his father, but equal to his father when compared to the beasts of the field.  Jesus is subordinate to God, but equal to God from the perspective of finite created beings.  In other words, although Jesus is distinct from God, we must honor Him equal to God.

Jesus has Divine Titles and Attributes.

Many titles that belong to God only, are also applied to Jesus.

I AM

Moses asked God, “If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is His Name?’ what shall I say to them?

God responded, “I AM WHO I AM …. Say this to the people of Israel, I AM has sent me to you … The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you. This is My Name for ever” (Exodus 3:15-18).  Here, God, in giving His name, gives the essential meaning of Yahweh; the One who exists without cause, but who is the Cause of everything else.

In John 8:21-59 Jesus repeatedly claims the divine name “I AM” for Himself.  He said, for instance:

You will die in your sins; for if you do not believe that I AM” (John 8:24)
Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM” (John 8:24, 58).

Jesus, by referring to Himself with this sacred name, claimed to be the God of the Old Testament; the Jehovah of Exodus 3:14.  This the Jews understood, for they wanted to stone Him for blasphemy (cf. John 5:18, 8:59, 10:30-36).

King of kings and Lord of lords

The One “whom no man has seen or can see” is called “King of kings and Lord of lords” (1 Tim. 6:14-16).  Jesus is similarly called “Lord of lords and King of kings” (Rev. 17:14, cf. 19:16).

Lord of the Sabbath

The seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God” (Exodus 20:10).  But Jesus is “the Lord of the Sabbath” (Mark 2:28).

Saviour

The Lord” said “I, even I, am the LORD, And there is no savior besides Me” (Isaiah 43:11).  God is also the Savior in Psalms 106:21; Isaiah 43:3; 45:21-23; 44:6 and I Timothy 2:3; cf. 1 Tim 4:10.)

But the New Testament describes Jesus as the “source of eternal salvation” (Hebrews 5:9), being “able to save forever those who draw near to God through Him” (Hebrews 7:25) for He “came into the world to save sinners” (I Timothy 1:15).  He is “our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus; who gave Himself for us” (Titus 2:13-14; cf. 2 Peter 1:1).  Jesus is also referred to as Savior in Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 4:12; I John 4:14 and many others.

Jesus is the Truth.

Jesus says in John 14:6, “I am the way and the truth and the life.” In Jesus Christ alone “are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” (Colossians 2:3).

Jesus is eternal. 

The LORD” (Yahweh) said:  “Before Me there was no God formed and there will be none after Me” (In Isaiah 43:10).  “I am the first and I am the last, and there is no God besides Me” (Isaiah 44:6; cf. Is. 48:12).  “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End … the Almighty” (Rev. 1:8; cf. 21:6).  This means that God is eternal; “from everlasting to everlasting” (Ps. 90:2).  The same applies to Jesus Christ:

Micah 5:2 speaks about the coming Christ, whose “goings forth are from long ago, from the days of eternity” (Micah 5:2).

John 1:1 says, “In the beginning was the Word”.  Since He was “in the beginning”, there was no time when He was not.

In Revelation, Jesus Christ says of Himself, “I am the first and the last, and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore” (Rev. 1:17-18). In the last chapter He says, “I AM the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last” (Rev. 22:13).

Christ is eternal as the Father is eternal.

Jesus is omnipresent.

Matthew 18:20Where two or three have gathered together in My name, I am there in their midst.
Matthew 28:20I am with you always, even to the end of the age.
Acts 18:9-10 The Lord said to Paul in the night by a vision, “Do not be afraid any longer, but go on speaking … for I am with you, and no man will attack you in order to harm you.

All the fullness of Deity dwells in Christ.

It was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him” (Col. 1:19).
All the fullness of Deity dwells in Christ in bodily form” (Col. 2:9).

Jesus created all things.  

In a separate article it was shown that God created all things, but God created all things through His Son.  The Son even created time.  There was no time that He did not exist.

Jesus has all authority.

Jesus claimed, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me” (Matthew 28:18).  This same authority was given to the Son of Man in Daniel 7:13–14 (see also Matthew 26:64).  By implication, God gave Him this authority, just like “it was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him” (Col. 1:19).  These things show Christ’s subordination to God, but also His equality to God.

Conclusion

Previous articles concluded that Jesus is not God and that Jesus is subordinate to God.  However, their oneness puts the Son far above created beings; on equal footing with God from the perspective of finite created beings.  We must honor Him as we honor God.  To further explain the notion that Jesus is not God, but has equality with God, the reader is advised to read Jesus in Philippians 2.

Articles in the series: Is Jesus God?

1.    The three views of the Son
2.    Jesus existed prior to His birth in the form of God.
3.    Jesus in Colossians
4.    Jesus in Philippians 2
5.    Who is the Word in John 1:1?
6.    Jesus is not God.
7.    God is the Head of Christ.
8.    In the Bible Jesus is called God.
9.    He is the Only Begotten Son of God.
10.  God created all things through His Son.
11.  We must worship Jesus.
12.  Jesus has equality with God.   Current article
13. 
Who is Jesus? – Summary of the series of articles
14.  Where do we find Jesus in the Old Testament?