Is Jesus the Most High God? – List of articles on this website

The conclusion, that the Bible makes a distinction between God and Jesus, and therefore that Jesus is not God, given how the New Testament uses the title “God,” came as a surprise to me personally.  To confirm my conclusion, I studied various books of the New Testament. These studies are available as articles:

SUMMARY OF THE ARTICLES BELOW
The Bible provides much evidence for Christ’s divinity but also that He is distinct from God and subordinate to the Father. We must consider both sets of evidence. This article summarizes the articles on this website about the nature of Christ.

SPECIFIC BIBLE BOOKS

BOOK OF REVELATION
This article analyzes the relationship between God and Jesus in the book of Revelation, including how it uses divine titles. It concludes that the Son is subordinate to the Father, but also belongs with the Father when compared to the created universe.

COLOSSIANS PART 1
The roles of God and Christ in the letter to the ColossiansAre we saved by Christ or by God? Who created all things and who reconciled all things to God; God or Christ Jesus?

COLOSSIANS PART 2
This article discusses the view of Jesus in the letter to the Colossians; is Jesus God? Is He equal to the Father? Or is He a created being?

SPECIFIC BIBLE PASSAGES

PHILIPPIANS 2
Philippians 2:5-11 describes four chronological stages of Christ’s life – before He became man – His human life – His death – and His exaltation after His ascension. Do these verses describe Him as God? If Jesus is not God, why will every knee bow to Him?

1 CORINTHIANS 8:6
1 Corinthians 8:6 shows that God is the Father alone. Trinitarians counter by saying that Jesus is God because (1) He co-created with God, (2) “God” and “Lord” are synonyms, and (3) this verse divides the words of the Shema between the Father and the Son.

DID JESUS CLAIM TO BE GOD?
In this verse, the Jews accused Jesus of claiming to be God. Based on Jesus’s debate with the Jews in this chapter, what did Jesus claim to be? Is verse 33 correctly translated? Or did Jesus, in John 10:36, claim to be THE Son of God?

I AND THE FATHER ARE ONE
This article discusses three statements by Jesus that are often thought to mean that He is God Himself, namely “I and the Father are one,” “The Father is in Me, and I in the Father,” and “He who has seen Me has seen the Father” (John 10:30; 38; 14:9).

ORIGIN AND PRE-EXISTENCE

ONLY-BEGOTTEN SON
As the “only-begotten,” Jesus is the only being generated from the being of the Father. But some argue that monogenēs should not be translated as “only begotten” but as “only unique.” This article motivates why “only begotten” is correct.

FIRSTBORN OF ALL CREATION
This article argues that Colossians 1:15 refers to the Son as the firstborn in a literal sense, namely that He literally was the first to exist. But since He was “born,” He was not created. Rather, He, Himself is “the Beginning” (Col 1:18; Rev 3:14) of all creation.

JESUS EXISTED BEFORE HIS BIRTH.
The Son always existed in the form of God and was equal to God, but was sent by God, emptied Himself, and descended from heaven to be born as a human being.

GOD CREATED THROUGH THE SON.
God created all things through Jesus Christ. As begotten of God, the Son was not created. Since the Son also created time, He ‘always’ existed. But of the reality beyond time – the source of the universe – we know nothing.

JESUS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
Jesus always existed for God created all things through Him.  We must, therefore, find Jesus in the Old Testament (OT)? God is invisible but was seen in the OT. This article finds evidence of two divine beings in the OT, implying that one of them is Jesus.

JESUS IS NOT GOD BUT SUBORDINATE TO GOD.

JESUS IS NOT GOD.
In the Trinity theory, God is one Being but three equal Persons. In contrast, the Bible always distinguishes between God and Jesus. For example, God is invisible but Jesus is visible, Jesus calls God His God, He is the image of God, and He is at God’s right hand.

JESUS IS THE WORD OF GOD.
Christ is the “Word of God” because everything that the creation receives from God, including existence, sustenance, knowledge, and salvation, flows through His Son. Also, through Christ, the adoration and thanksgiving of the creation flow back to God.

THE ALMIGHTY IS THE FATHER.
The title, “the Almighty,” appears ten times in the New Testament. This article shows that the New Testament refers to the Father alone as “the Almighty.” Some verses make an explicit distinction, e.g., “the Lord God the Almighty AND the Lamb” (Rev 21:22).

THE SON IS SUBORDINATE TO GOD.
The Son was subordinate to God before His birth and still is now after His ascension. Everything that the Son has, both as a human and eternally, He received from His Father, including His authority to raise the dead and to judge, and the Fullness of Deity.

IF JESUS IS NOT GOD, WHY MUST WE WORSHIP HIM?
We may worship only God, but we must also worship Jesus. Does that mean that He is God? The English word “worship” implies worshiping God. The Greek word that is translated as worship (proskuneó) does not require the one worshiped to be God.

List of all worship verses in the New Testament.

IS JESUS CALLED GOD?

SUMMARY OF THESE ARTICLES
The basic meaning of the Greek word translated as “God” (theos) is an immortal being with supernatural powers. To translate theos as “God” when it refers to Jesus is an application of the Trinity doctrine; not proof there-of.

WHAT DOES THEOS MEAN?
The Greek word theos has a wide range of meanings, including false gods, God’s people, and the Almighty. The English word “God” refers only to the Almighty. This article analyses in what sense the New Testament refers to Jesus as theos.

JOHN 1:18 – THE ONLY BEGOTTEN GOD
Many ancient manuscripts of John 1:18 refer to Jesus as son and not as theos. In any case, the word “God” is an interpretation for theos means “god” and is only translated as “God” when the translator thinks that it refers to the Ultimate Reality.

JOHN 20:28 – “My Lord and my God!
Why did Thomas address Jesus as ho theos (literally, the god) in John 20:28? Thomas could not have called Jesus “my God” because Jesus never taught that He is God and because the disciples, at the time, did not think or teach that Jesus is God.

IS JESUS “GOD” IN JOHN’S GOSPEL
The title “God” appears more than 100 times in John’s gospel and it consistently distinguishes between God and Jesus. Only 3 instances possibly refer to Jesus as God, but these instances are debatable. And John wrote that the Father is Jesus’ God.

ROMANS 9:5
Paul never refers to Jesus as God. He always distinguishes between Jesus and God. The huge variation in the translation of Romans 9:5 disqualifies it as evidence that Jesus is God. It depends on punctuation which, in the Bible, is interpretation.

HEBREWS 1:8
Hebrews 1:8 refers to Jesus as theos but the next verse shows that He is NOT God for it says that God is His God. Furthermore, Hebrews 1:1-2, 6 makes an explicit distinction between Jesus and God and represents Jesus as subordinate to God.

JOHN 1:1

INTRODUCTION
John 1:1 is very important in the controversy over the deity of Christ. This article introduces to the articles that discuss its translation, including alternative translations, and the meanings of “the Word,” “the beginning,” and “with God.” 

THE WORD
The normal meaning of logos is “message.” Some propose that the logos in John 1:1 is not a person but a personification of God’s eternal plan. In Greek philosophy, the logos was the intermediary through whom God created all things. 

THE WORD WAS A GOD.
John 1:1b includes the article (the) before theos (God), but John 1:1c omits it. Jehovah’s Witnesses, therefore, translate John 1:1c as: “the Word was a god.” This article lists seven objections to this translation.

THEOS IS A COUNT NOUN.
To defend their translation, “the Word was a god,” Jehovah’s Witnesses argue that “God” is a count noun and count nouns must always be either definite or indefinite, even when used qualitatively. This article evaluates this argument.

THE WORD WAS GOD
The translation, “the Word was God,” interprets theos as definite, but John 1:1c uses theos in a descriptive sense. In other words, it says that the Word was like God; He is the image of the invisible God (Col 1:15; cf. Heb 1:3).

This translation interprets theos as definite, but John 1:1c uses theos in a descriptive sense. In other words, the Word as like God, as the Bible elsewhere states, He is the image of the invisible God and the exact representation of His nature.

IS JOHN’S LOGOS THE SAME AS PHILO’S LOGOS?
Philo, a Jewish philosopher who wrote a few decades before the NT was written, included the Logos of Greek philosophy into his interpretation of the Old Testament and described the Logos as very similar to the Logos in the New Testament (Jesus Christ). This article shows these parallels and explains why they exist.

OTHER RESOURCES

Is Jesus God? He has equality with God and share God’s divine name and titles.

This article will show that the Father and the Son always work together as one. They have been together for all eternity. Together, they created all things and together they own all things. They share glory together.  Together they are in believers. They work together to save and protect believers and to judge all.

This article provides further evidence of Christ’s equality with Godnamely that Jesus had equality with God prior to His birth. This means that He today again has equality with God. They receive equal honor. As every knee will bow to God, so every knee will bow to Jesus. He is God’s only Begotten Son, which means that He is God’s only true family. Only God knows Jesus and only Jesus knows God. These are profound statements of equality.

God and Jesus share the same name and titles and attributes. Jesus claimed the divine name “I AM.” He has many Divine Titles, such as King of kings and Lord of lords, Lord of the Sabbath, and Saviour.  Jesus also has many divine attributes. He is the Truth, eternal and omnipresent. All the fullness of Deity dwells in Him. He created all things and has all authority.

God and Jesus work as one.

Always existed  

The beginning“The Word,” who has been identified as “the only begotten from the Father,” namely, Jesus Christ, has been with God in the beginning” (John 1:1-2, 14). He is “the first and the last” (Rev 1:17). In other words, He always existed. However, John 1:1-2 makes a distinction between God and “the Word,” meaning that they are two different Beings.

Jesus. However, it also indicates that the Son was in the beginning with God, and that beginning was before “all things” (John 1:3)!

Together, they created all things. 

God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness” (Gen. 1:26). The “Us” and “Our” must refer to God and Jesus, for in John 1:3 we read, “All things came into being through Him (the “Word” – Jesus), and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being”. In other words, God created all things through His Son.

Owns all things

Jesus said, “All things that the Father has are Mine” (John 16:15).  And, in prayer, He said, “all things that are Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine” (John 17:10). However, according to Hebrews 1:2, God appointed His Son as heir of all things and in Matthew 28:18 Jesus said that “all authority … in heaven and on earth” has been “given” to Him. 

Together, they direct the angels. 

The Lord, the God … sent His angel to show to His bond-servants the things which must soon take place” (Rev 22:6). But just ten verses later, Jesus says “I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things for the churches” (Rev 22:16).

Similarly, Luke 12:8-9 refers to the “angels of God” but in Matthew 13:41 Jesus said: “The Son of Man (Jesus Himself) will send forth His angels.

Together, they receive equal honor. 

Jesus prayed, “Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was” (John 17:5). Furthermore, with respect to when He will return to the Father, Jesus said:

All will honor the Son even as they honor the Father.
He who does not honor the Son
does not honor the Father who sent Him
” (John 5:23). 

That is a profound statement of equality.

They work together. 

Jesus answered them, “My Father is working until now” (John 5:17). But then Jesus adds, “and I Myself am working” (John 5:17). If this was not true, this would have been a most arrogant statement of equality.

They work together to redeem sinners.

Jesus said:

I am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life;
no one comes to the Father except through Me” (
John 14:6).

But He also said:

“No one can come to Me
unless the Father who sent Me draws him
” (John 6:44).

They working together for our salvation.

Both protect believers.

My sheep hear My voice …
and no one will snatch them out of My hand.
My Father, who has given them to Me,
is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them
out of the Father’s hand
” (John 10:27-29).

Both live in believers. 

Jesus said:

If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word;
and My Father will love him,
and We will come to him
and make Our abode with him
(John 14:23).

They judge as One.

My judgment is true; for I am not alone in it,
but I and the Father who sent Me
” (John 8:16).

Conclusion

God and Jesus are distinct. This has been shown by the article Jesus is not God. The article “God is the Head of Christ” confirms that Jesus is subordinate to God. We also see this in some of the statements above, such as that God appointed His Son as heir of all things (Heb 1:2).

But their unity or oneness, as evidenced above, puts the Son far above any created being. The Bible sometimes refers to Jesus as theos (translated as “god” or as “God”) but the article – The Bible calls Jesus God – argues that this does not mean that Jesus is God, for the title theos is used for any supernatural being. However, the unity of God and Jesus puts Jesus far above the general meaning of the word “god.”  This unity implies that we should regard Jesus as equal to God.

Jesus has equality with God.

The Bible provides us with further evidence that Jesus had equality with God:

Jesus “did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped.

This refers to the time prior to His birth. See the article – Does Philippians 2 say that Jesus emptied Himself of equality with God?  If He had equality with God prior to His birth, He today again has equality with God.

Every knee will bow to Jesus.  

every kneeGod identified Himself as the One speaking and says, “to Me every knee will bow” (Isa 45:23), but Paul wrote that to “Jesus every knee should bow” (Phil 2:10-11).

Only Begotten Son

This is My beloved SonSince He was “begotten,” He was not created. The article Only Begotten Son of God shows that this phrase means He is God’s only true family. The Bible consistently distinguishes between God and Jesus but God begets God.

Only God knows Jesus and only Jesus knows God. 

No one knows the Son except the Father;
nor does anyone know the Father except the Son

(Matt 11:27; cf. Luke 10:22).

This is an amazing statement of equality.

The Father shows the Son all things.

The Father loves the Son,
and shows Him all things that He Himself is doing
(John 5:19-20).

Conclusion

God is not comparable to anything we know. We do not understand God, but perhaps an analogy will explain the equality of God and Jesus better. A human son is subordinate to his father, but equal to his father when compared to the beasts of the field. Jesus is subordinate to God but equal to God from the perspective of finite created beings. In other words, although Jesus is distinct from God, we must honor Him equal to God.

Jesus has Divine Titles and Attributes.

Many titles that belong to God only, are also applied to Jesus.

I AM

Moses asked God:

If I come to the people of Israel and say to them,
‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’
and they ask me, ‘What is His Name?’
what shall I say to them?

God responded, “I AM WHO I AM …. Say this to the people of Israel, I AM has sent me to you … The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you. This is My Name for ever” (Exo 3:15-18). Here, God, in giving His name, gives the essential meaning of Yahweh; the One who exists without cause, but who is the Cause of everything else.

In John 8:21-59, Jesus repeatedly claims the divine name “I AM” for Himself.  He said, for instance:

You will die in your sins;
for if you do not believe that I AM
” (John 8:24)

Most assuredly, I say to you,
before Abraham was, I AM
” (John 8:24, 58).

Jesus, by referring to Himself with this sacred name, claimed to be the God of the Old Testament; the Jehovah of Exodus 3:14. This the Jews understood, for they wanted to stone Him for blasphemy (cf. John 5:18, 8:59, 10:30-36).

King of kings and Lord of lords

The One “whom no man has seen or can see” is called “King of kings and Lord of lords” (1 Tim 6:14-16). Jesus is similarly called “Lord of lords and King of kings” (Rev 17:14, cf. 19:16).

Lord of the Sabbath

The seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God” (Exo 20:10). But Jesus is “the Lord of the Sabbath” (Mark 2:28).

Saviour

The Lord” said, “I, even I, am the LORD, And there is no savior besides Me” (Isa 43:11). God is also the Savior in Psalms 106:21; Isaiah 43:3; 45:21-23; 44:6 and I Timothy 2:3; cf. 1 Tim 4:10.)

But the New Testament describes Jesus as the “source of eternal salvation” (Heb 5:9), being “able to save forever those who draw near to God through Him” (Heb 7:25) for He “came into the world to save sinners” (I Tim 1:15). He is “our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus; who gave Himself for us” (Titus 2:13-14; cf. 2 Peter 1:1). Jesus is also referred to as Savior in Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 4:12; I John 4:14 and many others.

Jesus is the Truth.

Jesus says in John 14:6, “I am the way and the truth and the life.” In Jesus Christ alone “are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” (Col 2:3).

Jesus is eternal. 

The LORD” (Yahweh) said:

Before Me there was no God formed
and there will be none after Me
” (Isa 43:10).

I am the first and I am the last,
and there is no God besides Me

(Isa 44:6; cf. Isa 48:12).

I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End … the Almighty” (Rev. 1:8; cf. 21:6).

This means that God is eternal; “from everlasting to everlasting” (Psa 90:2). The same applies to Jesus Christ:

Micah 5:2 speaks about the coming Christ, whose “goings forth are from long ago, from the days of eternity” (Micah 5:2).

John 1:1 says, “In the beginning was the Word”.  Since He was “in the beginning”, there was no time when He was not.

In Revelation, Jesus Christ says of Himself, “I am the first and the last, and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore” (Rev 1:17-18). In the last chapter, He says, “I AM the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last” (Rev 22:13).

Christ is eternal as the Father is eternal.

Jesus is omnipresent.

Where two or three have gathered together in My name,
I am there in their midst
” (Matt 18:20)

I am with you always, even to the end of the age
(Matt 28:20)

The Lord said to Paul in the night by a vision, “Do not be afraid any longer, but go on speaking … for I am with you, and no man will attack you in order to harm you” (Acts 18:9-10)

All the fullness of Deity dwells in Christ.

It was the Father’s good pleasure
for all the fullness to dwell in Him
” (Col 1:19).

All the fullness of Deity
dwells in Christ in bodily form
” (Col 2:9).

Jesus created all things.  

A separate article shows that God created all things, but God created all things through His Son. The Son even created time. There was no time that He did not exist.

Jesus has all authority.

Jesus claimed, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me” (Matt 28:18). This same authority was given to the Son of Man in Daniel 7:13–14 (see also Matthew 26:64). By implication, God gave Him this authority, just like “it was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him” (Col 1:19). These things show Christ’s subordination to God, but also His equality to God.

Conclusion

Previous articles concluded that Jesus is not God and that Jesus is subordinate to God. However, their oneness puts the Son far above created beings; on equal footing with God from the perspective of finite created beings. We must honor Him as we honor God. To further explain the notion that Jesus is not God, but has equality with God, the reader is advised to read Jesus in Philippians 2.

Articles in the series: Is Jesus God?

1.    The three views of the Son
2.    Jesus existed prior to His birth in the form of God.
3.    Jesus in Colossians
4.    Jesus in Philippians 2
5.    Who is the Word in John 1:1?
6.    Jesus is not God.
7.    God is the Head of Christ.
8.    In the Bible Jesus is called God.
9.    He is the Only Begotten Son of God.
10.  God created all things through His Son.
11.  We must worship Jesus.
12.  Jesus has equality with God.   Current article
13. 
Who is Jesus? – Summary of the series of articles

14.  Where do we find Jesus in the Old Testament?