PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE SERIES
According to Galatians and the Acts 15 Church Council, the Law of Christ has been nullified and replaced by “the Law of Christ.” However, in the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus said, “until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments … shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven.”
The purpose of this article series is to explain this apparent contradiction.
- A summary of the article series is available at, Does Galatians contradict Jesus?
- This first article shows that, according to Galatians, the Law of Christ replaced the Law of Moses.
- The second article partly solves this inconsistency by arguing that The Old Testament foresaw that the Law of Moses will fall away.
- The third article took this further by showing that Jesus’ teachings did replace the Old Testament commandments.
- The fourth and final article explains the nature of The Law of Christ.
All quotes are from the NASB.
GALATIANS; HISTORICAL CONTEXT
This section provides the historical context of Paul’s letter to the Galatians.
SECT OF JUDAISM
At Pentecost, the Holy Spirit fell only on Jews. For some years, the church consisted only of Jews and the church was a sect of Judaism. (See Jerusalem Phase of the Early Church.) Like all other Jews, these Jewish Christians believed that uncircumcised people are unclean (Acts 10:8-9, 28; 11:3) and that Jews will be contaminated if they have social contact with such people. It is for that reason that Peter said:
“You yourselves know how unlawful it is for a man who is a Jew to associate with a foreigner or to visit him” (Acts 10:28; cf. 10:14-15; 11:34-35).
FIRST GENTILE CHRISTIANS
But, some years after Christ died—after Israel forfeited its final opportunity to accept Christ (See Seven Last Years.)—God gave the Holy Spirit also to uncircumcised people just like to the Jews at Pentecost (Acts 10:44-45; 11:17). At the same time, God gave Peter the dream of unclean animals (Acts 10). God did this to indicate to the Jewish Christians that non-Jews are not unclean (Acts 11:9) and must be accepted into the church (Acts 11:12). For example, Peter interpreted his dream as follows:
“God has shown me that I should not call any man unholy or unclean” (Acts 10:28).
And, later, Peter explained the events of Acts 10 that God “made no distinction between us and them” (Acts 15:9), referring to the uncircumcised people as “them.”
Non-Jews were always allowed to convert to Judaism, but on condition that they allow circumcision and comply with the requirements of the Law of Moses. The events of Acts 10 meant that non-Jews must be accepted as Christians without circumcision and without conversion to Judaism.
CHRISTIAN JEWS PERSECUTED
However, this caused the Jewish Christians to be persecuted. Almost all Christians at the time were Jews and their Jewish relatives and friends persecuted them; firstly, because they believe in Christ as the Messiah, but they also regarded these Christian Jews as ‘contaminated’ through their association with uncircumcised people:
“Those … try to compel you to be circumcised, simply so that they will not be persecuted for the cross of Christ” (Gal 6:12).
DEMAND GENTILE CIRCUMCISION
For that reason, some Jewish Christians put pressure on the Gentiles Christians to accept circumcision. One technique was to avoid the Gentiles, even by shutting uncircumcised Gentiles out from their worship meetings:
“They wish to shut you out so that you will seek them” (Gal 4:17; cf. 2:12).
To justify their demand that the Gentiles be circumcised, particularly some Jewish Pharisees, who have become Christians (Acts 15:6) claimed that Gentile Christians cannot be saved unless they comply with the Law. This means that they had to convert to Judaism through circumcision (Acts 15:5).
CIRCUMCISION WAS THE DOOR INTO JUDAISM
In Galatians, Paul explicitly wrote against circumcision (Gal 6:12) but also warned that “every man who receives circumcision … he is under obligation to keep the whole Law” (Gal 5:3). The battle was fought on the circumcision front, but circumcision functioned as a sign that a person has converted to Judaism (effectively, has become a Jew). Circumcision, therefore, was a sign, but what these Christian Pharisees demanded was that the Gentiles Christians become as “zealous for the (whole) Law” as the Jewish Christians in Jerusalem were (Acts 21:20).
GALATIANS – LAW OF MOSES NULLIFIED
Paul wrote the letter to the Galatians to resist this pressure on the Gentiles to be circumcised, arguing that “man is not justified by the works of the Law” (Gal 2:16). Given this early church context, Galatians is possibly the earliest of Paul’s letters in the New Testament.
NO LONGER UNDER THE LAW OF MOSES
Paul wrote that God’s people (both Jews and non-Jews) are now no longer under (subject to) the Law of Moses. For example, he stated, “I died to the Law” (Gal 2:19) and “the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor” (Gal 3:24-25).
The allegory in Galatians 4 is painfully clear on this matter. It describes the Law of Moses (symbolized by Mount Sinai) as “slavery” (Gal 4:24, 25) and concludes:
“It was for freedom that Christ set us free; therefore keep standing firm and do not be subject again to a yoke of slavery” (Gal 5:1)
Since the Law of Moses was added more than 400 years after God made the covenant with Abraham (Gal 3:17), Paul argues that that covenant is permanent while the Law of Moses was a temporary addition “until the seed would come” (Gal 3:19). The “seed” (of Abraham) is Christ (Gal 3:16):
For this reason, Paul based his theology on God’s covenant with Abraham, which he interpreted as justification by faith.
THE LAW WAS ISRAEL GUARDIAN.
Why did God give a perfect law to Israel; only to abolish it later? Paul explains:
“Why the Law then?
It was added because of transgressions” (Gal 3:19).
“The Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ” (Gal 3:24)
In other words, due to their “transgressions” (v19), Israel needed a “tutor” (v24).
The Law of Moses “was added” to the covenant with Abraham. God made the covenant with Abraham before his grandson Israel moved to Egypt. During the long years as slaves in Egypt, Israel had forgotten the God of Abraham and has grown accustomed to idol worship. Therefore, after God brought them out of Egypt, He gave them His law in a form that was ‘perfect’ for their weakened spiritual condition of the time, given God’s purpose with Israel, for that nation was to be the conduit of God’s word to the world and to serve as a cradle to receive the Son of God.
ISRAEL NEEDED A LIST OF RULES.
In Galatians 4:1-3, Paul compares the Israelites to children; “held in bondage under the elemental things of the world” (Gal 4:3). In his letter to the Colossians, Paul described these “elemental things” as “decrees, such as, ‘Do not handle, do not taste, do not touch’” (Col 2:20-21). In other words, the “elemental things” are a list of things that must be done and not be done. Due to their weak spiritual condition, this is what Israel needed and this is what God gave them in the form of the Law of Moses.
Since the Law was added to the covenant thousands of years after Adam and hundreds of years after Abraham, the Law of Moses was not the form in which God gave His ‘law’ to Abraham or Adam. Nor was it the form in which God gives His eternal law to angels, for their desires are different.
Galatians is therefore quite clear that the Law of Moses is no longer applicable to God’s people.
NO LONGER LIVED LIKE JEWS.
Consequently, Christian Jews such as Peter and Paul no longer lived like Jews:
Before the party of the circumcision arrived, Peter lived “like the Gentiles and not like the Jews” (Gal 2:14; cf. v12).
Paul referred to his opponents as, “those who are circumcised do not even keep the Law themselves” (Gal 6:13).
Paul begged to Galatians, “become as I am, for I also have become as you are” (Gal 4:12). In other words, Paul already lived like a non-Jew.
ACTS 15 CHURCH COUNCIL
The Church Council in Acts 15 was called to bring resolution in the Galatian controversy (See When was Galatians written?). It agreed with Paul that Gentile Christians do not have to be circumcised (Acts 15:1, 5), which also means that they are not subject to the Law of Moses (Acts 15:5, 10). For further discussions of this, see also Comments on Matthew 5:17-18.
Acts 21:17-26 shows the consequences of that decision. It tells how Paul went into the lion’s den (Jerusalem), where thousands of Jews have become Christians, “and they are all zealous for the Law” (Acts 21:20). They were concerned that Paul was teaching “the Jews” “to forsake Moses” (Acts 21:21). They were quite happy that Paul taught the non-Jews not to observe the Mosaic Law because that was what the Acts 15 Church Council decided (Acts 21:25; cf. Acts 15:28). As explained in the article on the Acts 15 Church Council, the council made an unfortunate distinction between Jewish and Gentile Christians concerning the Law of Moses. Jewish Christians continued to live according to the Law of Moses.
LAW OF CHRIST
While the earlier chapters of Galatians argue against the Law of Moses, the later chapters introduce the concept of “the Law of Christ.”
In chapter 5 of Galatians, Paul emphasizes that, although the Law of Moses has been nullified, that does not mean we are free to sin. There still are norms of good and bad. He lists “deeds of the flesh” and “the fruit of the Spirit” (Gal 5:13-26) and said:
“You were called to freedom (from the Law of Moses – see Gal 4:24) … only do not turn your freedom into an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another” (Gal 5:13).
“Bear one another’s burdens,
and thereby fulfill the law of Christ” (Gal 6:2).
Given the nature of the controversy which Galatians deals with, the mention of “the law of Christ” implies that it comes in the place of the frequently mentioned “Law” (of Moses). See the article Law of Christ for further information.
THE LORD’S COMMANDMENT
1 Corinthians 14:37 refers to the Law of Christ as “the Lord’s commandment.” Paul wrote:
“The things which I write to you are the Lord’s commandment.”
“The Lord” does not refer to God, the Father. First Corinthians consistently makes a distinction between “God” and “the Lord” (1 Cor 1:3-4, 9; 6:14; and 8:6). These verses identify the Father alone is as “God” while they refer to Christ as “Lord.” In several verses, that letter identifies “the Lord” specifically as Jesus Christ, for example, “call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Cor 1:2; cf. 7, 8, 10; 5:4, 5; 9:1; 11:23; 12:3; 15:31, 57). In other instances, the context identifies “the Lord” as Christ, for example, “they … crucified the Lord of glory” (1 Cor 2:8; cf. 4:5; 7:10; 11:20, 26, 27). These examples show that “the Lord,” in First Corinthians, consistently refers to Jesus Christ. “The Lord’s commandment,” therefore, are Christ’s teachings; also described as “the law of Christ.”
1 CORINTHIANS 9
1 Corinthians 9 confirms that “the law of Christ” came in the place of the “law of Moses.” This is the only place, apart from Galatians, where Paul explicitly mentions the “Law of Christ.”
NOT UNDER THE LAW OF MOSES
First, 1 Cor 9:20 contrasts Paul with the Jews. The Jews are “under the Law” but Paul Himself is not “under the Law” (of Moses):
20 To the Jews I became as a Jew,
so that I might win Jews;
to those who are under the Law,
as under the Law
though not being myself under the Law,
so that I might win those who are under the Law;
In other words, when he was with Jews, he behaved like a Jew; as if he was subject to the Law of Moses. But the important point is that Paul explicitly states that he is not under the Law of Moses.
UNDER THE LAW OF CHRIST
The next verse contrasts Paul with the non-Jews.
They are “without law” (the law of Moses):
1 Cor 9:21 to those who are without law,
(I became) as without law,
though not being without the law of God but
under the law of Christ,
so that I might win those who are without law.
This means that, when he was with non-Jews, he lived like a non-Jew. As stated above, Paul wrote to the Galatian Gentiles, “I also have become as you are” (Gal 4:12).
According to verse 21, Paul is under “the Law of Christ” but not without “the Law of God.” That means that “the Law of Christ” is “the Law of God.” The Law of Moses is also the Law of God, but, as argued above, it is an adaption of God’s law to fit the needs of one specific nation at one specific point in history.
Paul wrote that he (and, therefore, all Christians) is NOT “under (subject to) the Law” but “under the law of Christ.” This sets a clear contrast between these two laws and implies that the Law of Christ replaced the Law of Moses. This also applies to Jews, for Paul himself was a Jew, and even he was not “under the Law.”