Daniel reveals the antichrist – List of Available Articles

IS DANIEL A FRAUD?

IS DANIEL A FRAUD?
Daniel the prophetDaniel’s prophecy claims that its visions were received by Daniel in the sixth century BC, revealing God’s knowledge of the future. Critical scholars, however, believe that the book was written centuries later by an unknown writer – AFTER the events it pretends to predict. This article evaluates the evidence for WHEN Daniel was written.
Summary  

FALL OF ROME
As stated, the Book of Daniel itself claims to have been written in the 6th century BC but many theologians believe that it was written in the second century BC. However, if Daniel was written in the time of Antiochus by an unknown and uninspired writer, why do the prophecies so accurately describe the Fall of Rome, about eight centuries later?

DARIUS THE MEDE
Daniel names Darius the Mede as king of the Chaldeans but secular history does not mention Darius at all. Critical scholars claim that that was a historical blunder by the second-century writer. This article proposes that Darius was general Ugbaru who conquered Babylon and who Cyrus appointed as king over Babylon. It proposes that Ugbaru chose Darius as his throne name.

THE ANTICHRIST COMES OUT OF ROME.

DANIEL 2  
The vision in Daniel 2 divides the history of the world into six successive ages. The first is the Babylonian Empire, followed by silver, bronze, and iron kingdoms. This is followed by a divided kingdom, and, finally, God’s eternal kingdom.

DANIEL 7
In Daniel 7, four beasts arose from the sea, symbolizing four kingdoms arising from the people of the world. Ten horns grow out of the fourth beast, symbolizing ten kingdoms that will arise “out of” that beast. But the most important character in Daniel is none of the above, but an eleventh horn that will become larger than the others. This is the Antichrist.

THE EVIL HORN OF DANIEL 8
Daniel 8 explicitly identifies the ram as Mede-Persia and the goat as Greece but does not identify the main character in the prophecy—the Antichrist that persecutes God’s people and corrupts His message. This article gives an overview of Daniel 8 and lists the alternative interpretations of this evil power.

THE ANTICHRIST COMES OUT OF ROME.
The main character in Daniel 7 and 8 is an evil horn-king. To show that it arises out of the Roman Empire, this article identifies the beasts of Daniel 7 by comparing them to the beasts of Daniel 8, which Daniel 8:20-21 explicitly identifies as the Medo-Persian and Greek empires.

THE ANTICHRIST IS NOT ANTIOCHUS.

OUT OF ONE OF THEM (DAN 8)
In Daniel 8, the horn comes “out of one of them.” If that means out of one of the four horns of the Greek goat, then the small horn must be a Greek king. But an analysis of the genders shows that it came out of one of the compass directions; not from a Greek horn.

THE VILE PERSON OF DANIEL 11
Daniel lived before the kingdoms of Greece and Mede-Persia came to power but the book mentions those empires explicitly. Critical scholars, who do not accept that God knows the future, propose that the book was written after these kingdoms, namely, in the time of Antiochus IV and that he is the Antichrist in that chapter. This article analyses Daniel 11 and refutes that proposal.

ANTIOCHUS DOES NOT FIT THE PROFILE
Critical scholars are convinced that the vile person in Daniel 11 is Antiochus IV; a Greek king that reigned in the second century BC. There are many similarities between them but this article lists several differences. Antiochus does not fit the profile. He may be a type, but he is not a complete fulfillment.

HISTORICAL CRITICISM
Fallen, fallen, is Babylon the Great! The theological faculties of the world have fallen to naturalism. They no longer accept the supernatural. For that reason, critical scholars claim that Daniel was written after the events it pretends to predict. This implies that the book of Daniel is a forgery.

DANIEL 9
In Daniel 9, God promises a further 490 years to Israel. This article summarizes the about 30 articles on this website that evaluate the four main interpretations of this cryptic prophecy in Daniel 9. 

 

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Did the evil horn come out of one of the four horns of the Greek goat?

SUMMARY

The previous article showed that the fourth beast of Daniel 7 must be the Roman Empire. To do this, it compared the animals in Daniel 7 to the animals in Daniel 8. The small horn in Daniel 7, therefore, grows out of the Roman Empire. In Daniel 8 the small horn comes “out of one of them.”  Hebrew nouns and pronouns have genders that require agreement. An analysis of the genders in Daniel 8 shows that the small horn comes out of one of the winds (compass directions) of the heavens. It, therefore, did not come from one of the Greek horns.

Daniel 8 does not symbolize the Roman Empire with a separate beast.  However, Daniel 7 presents the little horn not as a new entity, but as a continuation of the beast. The small horn in Daniel 8, therefore, includes both the terrible beast of Daniel 7 and its evil horn.  Evidence for this is the two phases of the horn. It first grows horizontally (politically) and then vertically (against God).

PURPOSE

The previous article compared the animals in Daniel 7 to the animals in Daniel 8 and showed that the fourth beast of Daniel 7 must be the Roman Empire.  It, therefore, follows that the small horn in Daniel 7 grows out of that empire. Furthermore, in the first article on Daniel 8, it was argued that the evil horn of Daniel 8 is the same as the evil horn of Daniel 7. This means that the evil horn of Daniel 8 also comes out of the Roman Empire.

Daniel 8:8-9 reads as follows:

8 The male goat magnified himself exceedingly.
But as soon as he was mighty,
the large horn was broken;
and in its place there came up four conspicuous horns
toward the four winds of heaven.
9 Out of one of them came forth a rather small horn
which grew exceedingly great toward the south,

toward the east, and toward the Beautiful Land. (NASB)

The male goat is “the kingdom of Greece” (Dan 8:21). The four horns that arose in its place represent four kingdoms that will arise from his nation (Dan 8:22).  The words “out of one of them” seem to indicate that the small horn comes out of one of these four Greek horns, and must, therefore, be a Greek king, such as Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The purpose of this article is to show that this is not the case.

GENDERS

In Hebrew, nouns and pronouns have genders that require agreement.  In the English translation, this information is lost, but the Hebrew genders allow one to identify the “one of them,” and therefore to determine whether the evil horn is Greek or not.

The last phrase in Dan 8:8, together with the beginning of Dan 8:9, with the relevant words marked (f) for feminine or (m) for masculine, reads as follows:

8 … the large horn was broken;
and in its place there came up four conspicuous horns
toward the four (f) winds (f) of heaven (m).
9 Out of one (f) of them (m) came forth a rather small horn

To understand where the little horn comes from, we need to identify the antecedents of the “one” and “them.” (An antecedent is a previously mentioned noun to which something refers.)

THEM

Them” is plural, and can, therefore, refer to the “horns” or the “winds.”  It can also refer to the “heaven,” for, in Hebrew, “heaven” is always plural (heavens).  But “them” is also masculine, while the Hebrew word for “horn” is always feminine, and the word for “winds” is written in Dan 8:8 as a feminine form. “Them” can therefore only refer to the “heaven.”

ONE

The numeral “one” is feminine in form.  Since “them” is masculine, the “one” does not have the same antecedent as “them.”  In other words, the “one” in the statement “one of them,” does not refer to “one” of the heavens.

Since “one” is feminine in form, it can either refer to one of the horns or to one of the winds. (The word “winds” means the four directions of the compass.)

OUT OF ONE OF THEM

Putting the above together, the phrase “out of one of them” can therefore either mean:

1. Out of one of the horns of the heavens, or
2. Out of one of the winds (compass directions) of the heavens

The first option is not acceptable because:

(a) Heavens do not have horns, and
(b) Nowhere in Daniel do horns come out of horns.

The only valid option is that the small horn came out of one of the winds (directions) of the heavens.  This conclusion is supported by the fact that “the four winds of heaven” is the final phrase in verse 8.  The first phrase of Dan 8:9, therefore, lines up as follows with the last phrase of Dan 8:8:

  Feminine Masculine  
8:8 there came up four horns toward the four winds of the heavens
8:9 from the one from them came forth a small horn

CONCLUSION

Daniel 8:8 states that four horns appeared in the place of the great horn that was broken.  They extended “toward the four winds of the heavens” (8:8). Daniel 8:9 begins by saying that the little horn came from one of these four winds of the heavens, that is, from one of the four directions of the compass. It, therefore, did not come from one of the Greek horns and is therefore not necessarily Greek in origin.

WHERE IS ROME?

But are we able to show that the horn came out of the Roman Empire?  Where is the Roman Empire in Daniel 8?  Daniel 8 does not seem to describe another empire between the Greek Empire and the evil horn.

THE HORN IS THE BEAST.

Firstly, one needs to understand that Daniel 7 presents the little horn as a continuation of the beast; not as a new entity.  The beast remains alive as long as the horn is alive:

Then I kept looking because of the sound of the boastful words which the horn was speaking; I kept looking until the beast was slain, and its body was destroyed and given to the burning fire. (Dan 7:11)

Therefore, when we see the horn in Daniel 8, we actually see the beast from which this horn grows.

TWO PHASES

Secondly, Daniel 8 does allow for political Rome, for the horn in Daniel 8 has two phases of growth.  It first grows horizontally:

a rather small horn which grew exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east, and toward the Beautiful Land (Dan 8:9).

Then it grows vertically:

It grew up to the host of heaven and caused some of the host and some of the stars to fall to the earth, and it trampled them down (Dan 8:10).

The horn does not literally grow up to the stars.  The stars are symbols of God’s people, and the trampling of the stars is the same as the persecution of God’s people described by Daniel 7:21, and 25.  The text continues:

It even magnified itself to be equal with the Commander of the host; and it removed the regular sacrifice from Him, and the place of His sanctuary was thrown down

The Commander of the host is God—“Him who lives forever” (Dan 12:7).

The horizontal expansion of the horn is its political phase and parallels the fourth beast of Daniel 7 when it “devour the whole earth and tread it down and crush it” (Dan 7:8, 23).

The vertical expansion is the horn’s religious phase, parallel to the evil horn of Daniel 7.

Daniel 8, therefore, merges the beast and its prominent horn into a single symbol—the horn.

INCREASING FOCUS ON THE EVIL ONE

Daniel 2 describes the full period from the time of Daniel to the Return of Christ but does not mention any anti-God activities.

Daniel 7, for the first time, reveals the evil entity.  In fact, the evil entity is the main character in that prophecy.  It divides the fourth empire into a political phase, described in only two verses (Dan 7:7, 19), and a subsequent phase during which an anti-God power will reign, described in about six verses.

Daniel 8 does not mention the first (Babylonian) or the last (eternal) kingdoms and includes both phases of the terrible beast under the symbolism of an evil horn. In other words, this anti-God power is more important than the political power from which it came. In fact, the only reason that the prophecies mention the political empires is to enable us to identify the evil anti-God power.

We, therefore, see in Daniel an increasing focus on the evil one.  For that reason, in Daniel 8, the beast itself is subsumed under the symbolism of the horn.

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