According to Galatians, the Law of Christ replaced the Law of Moses.



According to Galatians and the Acts 15 Church Council, the Law of Christ has been nullified and replaced by “the Law of Christ.” However, in the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus said, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments … shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven.”

The purpose of this article series is to explain this apparent contradiction. 

All quotes are from the NASB.


This section provides the historical context of Paul’s letter to the Galatians.


At Pentecost, the Holy Spirit fell only on Jews. For some years, the church consisted only of Jews and the church was a sect of Judaism. (See Jerusalem Phase of the Early Church.)  Like all other Jews, these Jewish Christians believed that uncircumcised people are unclean (Acts 10:8-9, 28; 11:3) and that Jews will be contaminated if they have social contact with such people. It is for that reason that Peter said:

You yourselves know how unlawful it is for a man who is a Jew to associate with a foreigner or to visit him” (Acts 10:28; cf. 10:14-15; 11:34-35).


But, some years after Christ died—after Israel forfeited its final opportunity to accept Christ (See Seven Last Years.)—God gave the Holy Spirit also to uncircumcised people just like to the Jews at Pentecost (Acts 10:44-45; 11:17). At the same time, God gave Peter the dream of unclean animals (Acts 10). God did this to indicate to the Jewish Christians that non-Jews are not unclean (Acts 11:9) and must be accepted into the church (Acts 11:12). For example, Peter interpreted his dream as follows:

God has shown me that I should not call any man unholy or unclean” (Acts 10:28).

And, later, Peter explained the events of Acts 10 that God “made no distinction between us and them” (Acts 15:9), referring to the uncircumcised people as “them.” 

Non-Jews were always allowed to convert to Judaism, but on condition that they allow circumcision and comply with the requirements of the Law of Moses.  The events of Acts 10 meant that non-Jews must be accepted as Christians without circumcision and without conversion to Judaism. 


However, this caused the Jewish Christians to be persecuted.  Almost all Christians at the time were Jews and their Jewish relatives and friends persecuted them; firstly, because they believe in Christ as the Messiah, but they also regarded these Christian Jews as ‘contaminated’ through their association with uncircumcised people:

Those … try to compel you to be circumcised, simply so that they will not be persecuted for the cross of Christ” (Gal 6:12).


For that reason, some Jewish Christians put pressure on the Gentiles Christians to accept circumcision.  One technique was to avoid the Gentiles, even by shutting uncircumcised Gentiles out from their worship meetings:

They wish to shut you out so that you will seek them” (Gal 4:17; cf. 2:12).

To justify their demand that the Gentiles be circumcised, particularly some Jewish Pharisees, who have become Christians (Acts 15:6) claimed that Gentile Christians cannot be saved unless they comply with the Law. This means that they had to convert to Judaism through circumcision (Acts 15:5). 


In Galatians, Paul explicitly wrote against circumcision (Gal 6:12) but also warned that “every man who receives circumcision … he is under obligation to keep the whole Law” (Gal 5:3). The battle was fought on the circumcision front, but circumcision functioned as a sign that a person has converted to Judaism (effectively, has become a Jew).  Circumcision, therefore, was a sign, but what these Christian Pharisees demanded was that the Gentiles Christians become as “zealous for the (whole) Law” as the Jewish Christians in Jerusalem were (Acts 21:20).


Paul wrote the letter to the Galatians to resist this pressure on the Gentiles to be circumcised, arguing that “man is not justified by the works of the Law” (Gal 2:16).  Given this early church context, Galatians is possibly the earliest of Paul’s letters in the New Testament. 


Paul wrote that God’s people (both Jews and non-Jews) are now no longer under (subject to) the Law of Moses. For example, he stated, “I died to the Law” (Gal 2:19) and “the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor” (Gal 3:24-25).  

The allegory in Galatians 4 is painfully clear on this matter. It describes the Law of Moses (symbolized by Mount Sinai) as “slavery” (Gal 4:24, 25) and concludes:

It was for freedom that Christ set us free; therefore keep standing firm and do not be subject again to a yoke of slavery” (Gal 5:1)

Since the Law of Moses was added more than 400 years after God made the covenant with Abraham (Gal 3:17), Paul argues that that covenant is permanent while the Law of Moses was a temporary addition “until the seed would come” (Gal 3:19). The “seed” (of Abraham) is Christ (Gal 3:16):

For this reason, Paul based his theology on God’s covenant with Abraham, which he interpreted as justification by faith.


Why did God give a perfect law to Israel; only to abolish it later?  Paul explains:

Why the Law then?
It was added because of transgressions
” (Gal 3:19).

The Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ” (Gal 3:24)

In other words, due to their “transgressions” (v19), Israel needed a “tutor” (v24).

The Law of Moses “was added” to the covenant with Abraham.  God made the covenant with Abraham before his grandson Israel moved to Egypt. During the long years as slaves in Egypt, Israel had forgotten the God of Abraham and has grown accustomed to idol worship. Therefore, after God brought them out of Egypt, He gave them His law in a form that was ‘perfect’ for their weakened spiritual condition of the time, given God’s purpose with Israel, for that nation was to be the conduit of God’s word to the world and to serve as a cradle to receive the Son of God.


In Galatians 4:1-3, Paul compares the Israelites to children; “held in bondage under the elemental things of the world” (Gal 4:3).  In his letter to the Colossians, Paul described these “elemental things” as “decrees, such as, ‘Do not handle, do not taste, do not touch’” (Col 2:20-21). In other words, the “elemental things” are a list of things that must be done and not be done. Due to their weak spiritual condition, this is what Israel needed and this is what God gave them in the form of the Law of Moses.

Since the Law was added to the covenant thousands of years after Adam and hundreds of years after Abraham, the Law of Moses was not the form in which God gave His ‘law’ to Abraham or Adam. Nor was it the form in which God gives His eternal law to angels, for their desires are different.

Galatians is therefore quite clear that the Law of Moses is no longer applicable to God’s people.


Consequently, Christian Jews such as Peter and Paul no longer lived like Jews:

Before the party of the circumcision arrived, Peter lived “like the Gentiles and not like the Jews” (Gal 2:14; cf. v12).

Paul referred to his opponents as, “those who are circumcised do not even keep the Law themselves” (Gal 6:13).

Paul begged to Galatians, “become as I am, for I also have become as you are” (Gal 4:12). In other words, Paul already lived like a non-Jew.


The Church Council in Acts 15 was called to bring resolution in the Galatian controversy (See When was Galatians written?).  It agreed with Paul that Gentile Christians do not have to be circumcised (Acts 15:1, 5), which also means that they are not subject to the Law of Moses (Acts 15:5, 10). For further discussions of this, see also Comments on Matthew 5:17-18.

Acts 21:17-26 shows the consequences of that decision. It tells how Paul went into the lion’s den (Jerusalem), where thousands of Jews have become Christians, “and they are all zealous for the Law” (Acts 21:20). They were concerned that Paul was teaching “the Jews” “to forsake Moses” (Acts 21:21). They were quite happy that Paul taught the non-Jews not to observe the Mosaic Law because that was what the Acts 15 Church Council decided (Acts 21:25; cf. Acts 15:28). As explained in the article on the Acts 15 Church Council, the council made an unfortunate distinction between Jewish and Gentile Christians concerning the Law of Moses.  Jewish Christians continued to live according to the Law of Moses.


While the earlier chapters of Galatians argue against the Law of Moses, the later chapters introduce the concept of “the Law of Christ.”

In chapter 5 of Galatians, Paul emphasizes that, although the Law of Moses has been nullified, that does not mean we are free to sin.  There still are norms of good and bad. He lists “deeds of the flesh” and “the fruit of the Spirit” (Gal 5:13-26) and said:

You were called to freedom (from the Law of Moses – see Gal 4:24) … only do not turn your freedom into an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another” (Gal 5:13).

He concludes:

Bear one another’s burdens,
and thereby fulfill the law of Christ
” (Gal 6:2).

Given the nature of the controversy which Galatians deals with, the mention of “the law of Christ” implies that it comes in the place of the frequently mentioned “Law” (of Moses). See the article Law of Christ for further information.


1 Corinthians 14:37 refers to the Law of Christ as “the Lord’s commandment.” Paul wrote:

The things which I write to you are the Lord’s commandment.”

The Lord” does not refer to God, the Father.  First Corinthians consistently makes a distinction between “God” and “the Lord” (1 Cor 1:3-4, 9; 6:14; and 8:6). These verses identify the Father alone is as “God” while they refer to Christ as “Lord.”  In several verses, that letter identifies “the Lord” specifically as Jesus Christ, for example, “call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Cor 1:2; cf. 7, 8, 10; 5:4, 5; 9:1; 11:23; 12:3; 15:31, 57). In other instances, the context identifies “the Lord” as Christ, for example, “they … crucified the Lord of glory” (1 Cor 2:8; cf. 4:5; 7:10; 11:20, 26, 27). These examples show that “the Lord,” in First Corinthians, consistently refers to Jesus Christ. “The Lord’s commandment,” therefore, are Christ’s teachings; also described as “the law of Christ.” 


1 Corinthians 9 confirms that “the law of Christ” came in the place of the “law of Moses.” This is the only place, apart from Galatians, where Paul explicitly mentions the “Law of Christ.”


First, 1 Cor 9:20 contrasts Paul with the Jews. The Jews are “under the Law” but Paul Himself is not “under the Law” (of Moses):

20 To the Jews I became as a Jew,
so that I might win Jews; 
to those who are under the Law,
as under the Law
though not being myself under the Law,
so that I might win those who are under the Law;

In other words, when he was with Jews, he behaved like a Jew; as if he was subject to the Law of Moses. But the important point is that Paul explicitly states that he is not under the Law of Moses.


The next verse contrasts Paul with the non-Jews.
They are “without law” (the law of Moses):

1 Cor 9:21 to those who are without law,
(I became) as without law,
though not being without the law of God but
under the law of Christ,
so that I might win those who are without law.

This means that, when he was with non-Jews, he lived like a non-Jew.  As stated above, Paul wrote to the Galatian Gentiles, “I also have become as you are” (Gal 4:12).

According to verse 21, Paul is under “the Law of Christ” but not without “the Law of God.” That means that “the Law of Christ” is “the Law of God.” The Law of Moses is also the Law of God, but, as argued above, it is an adaption of God’s law to fit the needs of one specific nation at one specific point in history.


Paul wrote that he (and, therefore, all Christians) is NOTunder (subject to) the Law” but “under the law of Christ.” This sets a clear contrast between these two laws and implies that the Law of Christ replaced the Law of Moses. This also applies to Jews, for Paul himself was a Jew, and even he was not “under the Law.


GALATIANS 1&2 The distorted gospel converted Gentile Christians into Judaism.

This is an overview of chapters 1 and 2 of Paul’s letter to the Galatians. Paul himself founded the churches in Galatia (Gal 1:8), but after he left, some people, probably Jewish Christians from Jerusalem (2:17), took a dangerously distorted gospel to those churches (Gal 1:6-9). Their intention was to compel Gentile Christians to be circumcised (Gal 2:3, 12) and to live like Jews (Gal 2:14). They argued that man is “justified by the works of the Law” (Gal 2:16) and said:

“Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved” (Acts 15:1).


To oppose this distorted gospel, Paul wrote this letter.  In the first two chapters he provides his credentials:

He is “an apostle” (Gal 1:1), which means to be sent by God.

God has set him apart even from his mother’s womb and called him to preach among the Gentiles (Gal 1:15-16; 2:7-8).

Paul received his message directly from God, not through other men (Gal 1:1, 11-12, 16-19; 2:6).

The church leaders in Jerusalem accepted his message as from God (Gal 2:9).

He took Titus, an uncircumcised Gentile, along with him on his visit to the church headquarters in Jerusalem, and Titus was not compelled to be circumcised (Gal 2:3, 9). This also confirms that the church leaders accepted Paul’s gospel.


In Gal 2:16, Paul attacks the foundation of the demand that Gentile Christians be circumcised. He wrote:

Man is not justified by the works of the Law
but through faith in Christ Jesus

Many people understand this as the main message of the letter to the Galatians but his real message is that Christians are not subject to the Law of Moses:

(1) Paul’s entire purpose is to prevent the circumcision of Gentiles. (Circumcision was the door into Judaism.)

(2) The question “is Christ then a minister of sin?” (Gal 2:17) seems to be an argument used by Paul’s opponents.  Paul taught that Gentiles should not be circumcised and should not “live like Jews” (Gal 2:14).  Paul’s enemies argued that this teaching makes of Christ is “a minister of sin”.

(3) Through his teaching, Paul has destroyed” (Gal 2:18) “the barrier of the dividing wall” between Jew and Gentile which is “the Law of commandments contained in ordinances” (Eph 2:14-15).

(4) Paul wrote, “I died to the Law.”  This means that Jewish Christians are “released from the Law” and now no longer have to serve “in oldness of the letter” (Rom 7:6).

Statements like these mean that Christians are released from serving by the letter the Law.  This is Paul’s real main message against the distorted gospel which attempted to convert Gentile Christians into Judaism. 


Paul not only explains that “man is not justified by the works of the Law” (2:16) but also provides the correct method of justification, namely “through faith in Christ Jesus” (Gal 2:16).  He, therefore, contrasts “faith” with “the works of the Law” (Gal 2:16; 3:10):

Works” are the rituals and ceremonies required by the Law. The Jews, including some early Jewish Christians, thought that they become acceptable to God through these works.

Faith” is the internal mindset that trusts God and relies on His grace (merciful-kindness).  Romans 7 explains what faith is.


The issue on the table at the Acts 15 Chruch Council exactly was whether Gentiles must be circumcised (Acts 15:1, 3, 5). The church council agreed with Paul (Acts 15:19-20).  It is rather strange that Paul does not use the church council’s decision to support his position. Perhaps the church council took place only after Galatians was written.  And perhaps the “great dissension and debate” (Acts 15:2), which preceded that meeting, included the letter to the Galatians.


Paul himself founded the churches in Galatia, but, after he left, Jewish Christians from Jerusalem arrived and told the Gentile Christians to be circumcised and to live like Jews. In the first years after Jesus died, the church existed as a sect of Judaism and their real intention was to convert these Gentile Christians into Judaism. They justified their demands by claiming that “man is justified by the words of the law.” These “works” are not works of love but referred to the rituals and ceremonies required by the Law of Moses.

God called Paul and gave to Paul, via revelation, the message he had to preach among the Gentiles. Paul, by implication, was given the task to remove the church out from Judaism. He, therefore, wrote this letter to oppose the Jewish distortion.  He wrote that “man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus.” Faith is an internal mindset that trusts God. But Paul’s main message was that Christians are not subject to the Law of Moses.

TO: Galatians Table of Contents
TO: Summary of Galatians chapters 1 to 3
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