I have not yet been able to prepare analyses of Paul’s entire letter to the Romans. The articles below are currently available:
God will not override human freedom. God cannot force people in this life because He will not force people in the life to come. He gives us evidence of “His invisible attributes.” If we reject this evidence, there is nothing else that He can or will do, and He gives us up to our lusts.
In the End-Time Judgment, God will judge all people in the same way. Romans 2 warns Jewish Christians that it is not the hearers of the Law who are just before God, for “the doers of the Law will be justified.” Even people that never heard about Christ, will be saved because they have the “Law written in their hearts.”
On the basis of the many parallels between these verses and Romans 9 and 11, this article concludes that these 8 verses discuss the same topic as Romans 9 and 11, namely the causes and consequences of Israel’s rejection of Christ. God elected a remnant from Israel but included believing Gentiles into this chosen remnant.
ISRAEL IN ROMANS 9 TO 11
THE CHOSEN NATION
This is a study of Romans 9 and 11, but the purpose is to determine who Israel is in the Book of Revelation. In Paul’s day, God elected a remnant from Israel but included believing Gentiles into this chosen remnant. God did not annul His word. Israel’s promises and covenants remain but now belong to this chosen remnant.
ALL ISRAEL WILL BE SAVED
The is a summary of the previous rather long article. While the main article more or less sequentially works through Romans 9 – 11, this article discusses these chapters thematically. The chosen remnant is a continuation of Israel of the Old Testament; not a new entity with new founding principles.
ELECTION IN ROMANS 9 AND 11
Romans 9 and 11 make many and strong election statements, but this is an election to a mission, not to salvation. God did not elect Israel to save that nation alone. God elected Israel as a means through which God could save the nations of the world. Through Israel, God maintained His word on earth and gave the world its Messiah.
1-4 CONTROVERSY IN ROME
The dispute over unclean meat in Romans 14 was not a dispute over the Law of Moses. It was probably caused by the superstition of new converts from idolatry that eating meat offered to idols gave these idols power over them.
MEANING OF UNCLEAN
“Nothing is unclean in itself” (Romans 14:14). The Greek word koinos, translated here as “unclean,” does not refer to the unclean animals of the Old Testament. The dispute was not about Biblical prescripts, but about the opinions of people with respect to what food is unsuitable for Christian consumption.
WHY SOME CHRISTIANS DID NOT EAT MEAT
1 Corinthians 8 and 10 are very similar to Romans 14 and explain why the ‘weak’ Christians did not eat meat sacrificed to idols, namely that new converts, based on their experience with idolatry, regarded eating meat as idol worship.
5-6 – IS THE SABBATH OPTIONAL?
Each person must decide for himself whether to regard one day above another (Romans 14:5). This is often interpreted as that the Sabbath is optional. But, in the context of a dispute about food, the “days” in verse 5 probably were days on which some Christians abstained from eating meat.
7-13 – GOD WILL JUDGE PEOPLE BY THEIR DEEDS
“A man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law” (e.g. Rom. 3:27), but all people will all be judged by their deeds before the Judgment Seat of God. What is the difference between “deeds” and “the works of the Law?”
13-23 – RATHER ABSTAIN FROM EATING MEAT
Strong Christians may harm weaker brethren spiritually by eating meat that the weaker brother regards as unholy. Strong Christians should abstain from meat, rather than to cause a weaker brother to stumble.
For general discussions of theology, I recommend Graham Maxwell, who you will find on the Pineknoll website.