Was the early church father Irenaeus (died 190) a Trinitarian?

The word “Almighty” appears only 10 times in the New Testament. Nine of those are in the book of Revelation.  The other one is in 2 Corinthians 6:16-18, where Paul quotes from the Old Testament and identifies “God” as “the Lord Almighty.”  Revelation never refers to Jesus as “Almighty.”  To the contrary, three times it makes a distinction between the Son and the Almighty:

The Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns.  Let us rejoice … for the marriage of the Lamb has come’” (Rev. 19:6).

The Word of God (Jesus) … treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty” (Rev. 19:13-15).

I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb are its temple” (Rev. 21:22)

For a more detailed discussion, see Is Jesus the Almighty?

Jesus is our God

Irenaeus above wrote that we received the faith in “One God, the Father Almighty.”  But in the next paragraph, Irenaeus also referred to Christ Jesus as “our God.”  Trinitarian apologists use such phrases to argue that the church fathers before Nicene did believe that Jesus is God. Since many writers in the first 300 years referred to Jesus as “our god,” this is discussed in the article, Jesus is our god.

In summary, they described Jesus as “our God” and the Father as “the only true God.”  Actually, the word “God” did not exist in the ancient Greek texts. We use the modern word “God” as the proper name for the One who exists without cause.   The ancients did not have such a word.  They only had the word “god” (theos in Greek).  This word was used for a wide variety of beings, such as Moses, angels, Israel’s judges, appetite, those who receive the word of God, Satan and obviously also for the only true god.  The translators decided to capitalize the “G,” when theos refers to Jesus, but that is an interpretation.  It is an application of the Trinity doctrine; not proof of it.  It must not be used to support the Trinity doctrine.

One Christ Jesus

In contrast to the “one God,” Irenaeus referred to “one Christ Jesus.”  This is an adaptation of the “one God” slogans in the Bible:

For us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him” (1 Cor. 8:6)

There is … one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all” (Eph. 4:4-6).

There is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus” (1 Titus 2:5).

In other words, Irenaeus referred to Jesus as “one Christ Jesus” in contrast to the “one God.” 


These “one God” slogans have their origin in the Old Testament Shema, which reads, “The LORD is our God, the LORD is one!” (Deut. 6:4).  Jesus quoted this as, “HEAR, O ISRAEL! THE LORD OUR GOD IS ONE LORD” (Mark 12:29).

Jesus, therefore, by quoting the Shema, referred to the God of the Old Testament as the “ONE LORD.”  Since the New Testament also refers to the Son as “one Lord,” Trinitarians use this as support for the view that Jesus is God.  However:

Firstly, the “one God” statements quoted above make a clear distinction between the “one God” (the Father) and the “one Lord, Jesus Christ.”  

Secondly, the word “LORD” in the Shema, in the Old Testament, is actually God’s name (YHVH).

Thirdly, the Greek word translated “lord” has a wide range of meanings.  On the low end of the scale, it can simply be a respectful form of address to somebody in a more senior position.  It then means “sir” or “master.”  On the other end, it can also be used exalted beings, such as kings and for gods.

Due to this wide range of meanings, we should not assume that Jesus is equal to the Father simply because both are called “Lord.” 


Irenaeus’ wrote, quoted above, that “every knee should bow” before “Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King.”  This statement is also derived from Philippians 2.  Irenaeus stated that every knee will bow to Him because that is “according to the will of the invisible Father.”  This also comes from Philippians 2, which states that every knee will bow to Jesus because “God highly exactly Him” (v9).  Also in Hebrews 1:6 we see that the Father gave the command, “Let all the angels of God worship him.”  Jesus receives worship because that is the will of the Almighty God; not because He Himself is the Almighty.  This implies that the Son is subordinate to the Father; not equal to Him, as Trinitarians claim.

This is confirmed by the following quote from Irenaeus, which describe the Father as “the Head of Christ:”

And thus one God the Father is declared, who is above all, and through all, and in all. The Father is indeed above all, and He is the Head of Christ;
but the Word … is the living water, which the Lord grants to those who rightly believe in Him, and love Him” (Against Heresies 5.18.2)

This is a quote from 1 Corinthians 2:3, which reads, “Christ is the head of every man, and the man is the head of a woman, and God is the head of Christ.”  A fundamental tenet of the Trinity doctrine is the co-equality of the three Persons.  The famous Athanasian Creed, which is taught by many denominations today, for example, reads as follows:

Nothing in this trinity … is greater or smaller;
in their entirety the three persons
are coeternal and coequal with each other.

Since Irenaeus presented the Son as subordinate to the Father, he was not a Trinitarian.


Above Irenaeus identified “God, the Father,” as the “Almighty” Creator, but he also wrote that “God, the Father” created “by” (through) Jesus Christ:

John, proclaiming one God, the Almighty, and one Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten, by whom all things were made, declares that this was the Son of God (Against Heresies 1.9.2)

Those who regard Jesus as a mere human being, who did astounding things, such as Dr. Tuggy (e.g. podcast 268 – Philippians 2 and podcast 258 – Who is the one Creator?), explains this to mean that Christ Jesus is God’s “Word” or power through which He created; not a separate Person.  This approach can perhaps, with difficulty, explain John 1, Hebrews 1:2 and 1 Cor. 8:6, but Hebrews 1:10 says of the Son, “you, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of your hands.”  Listen to Dr. Tuggy’s podcasts 258 and 259, where he attempts to show that Christ Jesus was not involved in the creation, but actually provides much evidence to the contrary.

Triadic Passages

Irenaeus mentions the “One Christ Jesus,” “the Holy Spirit” and the “One God” together in a single passage but that does not mean that the Three are one or equal.  It simply means that they are highly related. 


Irenaeus believed that the Father is “the only and the true God,” who also created all things.  He alone is “Almighty.”  In his view, Christ Jesus and the Holy Spirit are highly related to the “One God,” but still distinct.  He wrote that “every knee should bow” to Jesus because that is “the will of the invisible Father.”  Irenaeus saw Christ as distinct from God and subordinate to the Father, explicitly quoting from the Bible that the Father is “the Head of Christ.” None of the quotes say that the Holy Spirit is self-aware.  There is no mention of one substance or of Christ’s dual nature.

The purpose of the mini-series of articles is to determine whether the church fathers in the first three centuries believed in the Trinity.  If we use Irenaeus, writing in the late second century, as a norm, then the answer must be a loud and clear “no.” 

Articles in this series

Christology of the persecuted church (First 300 years)
 – Introduction
 – Polycarp
 – Justin Martyr 
 – Ignatius of Antioch
 – Irenaeus – Current Article
 – Tertullian – work in progress

 – Origen – work in progress
 – Jesus is our god.
Fourth Century (State Church)
 – Council of Nicaea – A.D. 325 
 – The Nicene Creed Interpreted 
 – Fourth Century Arianism 

 – What did Arianism believe in the fourth century?
 – Long Lines Creed – one of the creeds during the Arian period
 – Death of Arianism – Emperor Theodosius
Fifth Century
 – Fall of the Western Roman Empire
 – Why the Roman Empire fell 
 – The Fall of Rome proves Daniel as a true prophecy.
Middle Ages

 – The massacres of the Waldensians

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