PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE
There are three beasts in Revelation that each has seven heads and ten horns. They are:
- The Dragon (Revelation 12);
- The Beast that comes out of the sea (Revelation 13); and
- The Scarlet Beast, on which the harlot sits (Revelation 17).
These are NOT LITERAL beasts. Since they all have seven heads and ten horns, THEY ARE RELATED. The purpose of this article is to determine what these beasts are. How are they related? Are they the same, or symbols of different things?
THE SAME AS THE BEASTS OF DANIEL 7
While the beasts of Revelation EACH have 7 heads and 10 horns, the beasts of Daniel 7 have, IN TOTAL, 7 heads and 10 horns. The beasts of Daniel 7 are:
- a lion (7:4);
- a bear (7:5);
- a leopard with four heads (7:6) and;
- a “dreadful and terrifying and extremely strong” beast
with ten horns (Dan 7:7).
Since the beasts of Revelation each have 7 heads and 10 horns, it implies that they are somehow the same beasts as in Daniel 7.
To make it completely clear that the beasts in Daniel 7 and Revelation are the same, somehow, Revelation 13 informs us that the beast from the sea:
“Was like a leopard,
and his feet were like those of a bear,
and his mouth like the mouth of a lion.
And the dragon gave him his power and
his throne and great authority” (13:2 NASB).
The leopard, bear and lion are exactly the same as the first three beasts of Daniel 7, while “dragon” is a good name for the fourth beast of Daniel 7, which does not look but any known animal, but is described by Daniel 7 as “dreadful and terrifying and extremely strong.” In other words, the Sea-beast inherits something from each of the four beasts of Daniel 7. The beasts of Revelation, therefore, are, somehow, the same as the beast-kingdoms described in Daniel 7. They provide additional information about the empires symbolized by the beasts of Daniel 7.
PHASES OF THE IMAGE IN DANIEL 2
Daniel 2 presents the series of beasts in Daniel 7 as a single image of a man. Different body parts represent the different empires. The first empire is the head of gold. It represents the ancient Babylonian empire. The last phase is the feet. The entire image is destroyed by Christ’s return.
While the beasts of Daniel 7 emphasize their distinctness, the image in Daniel 2 conveys that, from God’s perspective, they are all different phases of the same reality; man’s blasphemous rule on earth.
Since the three seven-headed beasts in Revelation are, somehow, the same as the kingdoms in Daniel, they also are certain phases of the image of Daniel 2.
ELEVENTH HORN OF DANIEL 7
The article on Daniel 7, by comparing the beasts in Daniel 7 to the animals in Daniel 8, identifies the beasts as follows:
- Lion = Babylonian Empire
- Bear = Mede-Persian Empire
- Leopard = Grecian Empire
- Dragon = Roman Empire
However, the MAIN ACTOR in the drama of Daniel 7 is neither of these four. Most of the verses in Daniel 7 describe a fifth power, namely the 11th horn that grows out of the fourth beast (Dan 7:8). Daniel 7 allocates more space to the 11th horn than perhaps to all four beasts put together. The four beasts are described as its predecessors merely SO THAT WE MAY BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THIS ELEVENTH HORN.
Initially, 10 horns grow out of Daniel’s fourth beast. This is explained as “out of this kingdom (out of the Roman Empire) ten kings will arise” (Dan 7:24). The Roman Empire came to its end over hundreds of years as its territory was systematically eroded by ‘barbarian’ tribes. The ten horns represent the nations that were formed as the Empire dissolved. Since “king” and “kingdom” are synonyms in Daniel (See 7:17, 23), each of the ten horns may be understood as a kingdom; a series of kings.
Then the eleven horn arises from the Roman Empire. It dominates the other kingdoms (Dan 7:20, 24), “speak out against the Most High and wear down the saints of the Highest One” (Dan 7:25). Daniel 7 predicts that this 11th horn will be the most significant opposition to God and to His people of all time. It will become so important that a court in heaven will sit to judge between this horn and God’s people (7:26, 9-11 and 14). This 11th horn will only be destroyed when Christ returns (7:26, 11). Then the everlasting kingdom will be given to the saints (7:27) and to the Son of man (7:13-14). This 11th horn will, therefore, be a continuation of (horn of) the Roman Empire in some way, and will exist until Jesus returns.
CHURCH OF THE MIDDLE AGES
The current article proposes that this 11th horn is the Church of the Middle Ages. About 200 years ago, arguably, all Protestant commentators accepted this interpretation. Today, few people still believe it. Over the last 200 years, the Church has not been able to destroy Bibles and persecute and kill the saints, as it has done during the Middle Ages, but the horrible deeds of the Church of the Middle Ages have been erased from human memory. Today it is no longer acceptable to identify this Church as the great persecuting power of Daniel.
ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANIES IV
In academic circles, the 11th horn has been identified as Antiochus Epiphanies IV. This is based on the assumption that Daniel was written, NOT as the book itself indicates, in the sixth century before Christ, but in the time of Antiochus; in about 165 BC. This view is not accepted here. The present author has made a study of when Daniel was written, and sufficient evidence exists in the book of Daniel itself, such as the amazing historical accuracy of the fifth chapter, and outside the book, such as in the Dead Sea scrolls, that Daniel was written in the sixth century B.C.
Another article shows that Antiochus IV does not fit the profile of the “vile person” (Daniel 11:21 – KJV), which is another name for the 11th horn in Daniel 7 and for the little horn in Daniel 8.
In non-academic circles, the dispensationalist view is dominant. This view postpones the Antichrist to a future seven-year period after a secret rapture. A large number of articles on this website discuss the Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9. Those articles reject the theory of an end-time seven years and show that the last seven years of Daniel 9 fit the time of Christ.
CHURCH OF THE MIDDLE AGES
Revelation warns us that “those who dwell on the earth were made drunk with the wine of her immorality” (17:2). We, therefore, cannot go on what people think. It is maintained here, in spite of the massive resistance against that thought, that the Church of the Middle Ages, with the Roman Church as the most visible remnant today, is the 11th horn of Daniel 7.
GROWS OUT OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
To confirm this, consider the sequence described by Daniel 7. Four empires are described. The fourth is the Roman Empire. Rome then breaks up into a large number of nations. The Antichrist-horn will be among them; stronger than the others, but, nonetheless, among them. The Antichrist-horn must grow out of the Roman Empire. Neither the Antiochus nor futuristic theories fit this pattern.
This section explains that the Church of the Middle Ages is a direct descendant of the Roman Empire, explained as follows:
In the fourth century, after the church became the only official religion of the Roman Empire, Church and State became one and the Emperor became THE REAL HEAD OF THE CHURCH. The combination of church and state persecuted people with differing views, just like the Empire persecuted Christians in previous centuries. The church was transformed into the image of the Roman Empire. On the other hand, due to the evangelizing effort of the church, many of the pagan tribes outside the borders of the Roman Empire accepted Christianity.
FALL OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
In the fifth century, the Western Roman Empire became progressively weaker due to the relentless onslaught of the surrounding tribes. Eventually, Rome succumbed and fell, but through all this the Church of Rome stood strong. The tribes, having become Christian themselves, and having received the message of Christ from the Church, respected the Church. They not only allowed the formal structures of the church to remain in place; they also accepted its leadership.
IN THE REPLACE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
In the absence of the Roman State, and given the large number of poorly organized Christian tribes, the church grew stronger. In a time of chaos, the church stood as a bastion of stability. The church did not only assume leadership in spiritual matters, but competed with the nations for dominance in civil matters. In this way, over time, the Pope replaced the Emperors and the Church assumed a leadership role among the nations, similar to the role which Rome previously occupied. Throughout the Middle Ages, there was a power struggle between the catholic (small “c” = universal) church and the political rulers. At times the Church dominated the nations. At other times the State claimed to be master over the Church, but while nations were formed and dissolved, the Church remained strong at all times.
But the Church became corrupted. Today people may not be aware of the history of the Church, how it adopted pagan doctrines, actively destroyed Bibles and killed God’s people. It became strong and was able to systematically destroy the remnant of the true church. It replaced the gospel with a different religion; one where one is able to buy salvation; one that is based on the ancient mother-child religion from the time of Nimrod and Semiramis. It has become a church that is based on wealth, splendor and power, mesmerizing the world with its dignity, power and wealth.
REFORMATION AND RENAISSANCE
The deeds of the church simply are symptoms of a lack of love. The reformation reformed some of the practices but the church never recovered its “first love” (Rev. 2:4). The reformed churches continued to persecute Christians with differing views, albeit to a much lesser extent. This is not to say that the Church is all bad, for it is not. There are good things and good people in both the Roman and the reformed churches, but “the meekness and gentleness of Christ” (2 Cor. 10:1) and of Moses (Num. 12:3), which should characterize every Christian, are very often absent. Paul called on Christians to “walk in a manner worthy of the calling … with all humility and gentleness, with patience, showing tolerance for one another in love” (Eph. 4:1-2).
The renaissance did not change the character of the church, but it did change the ability of the church to persecute and dominate. The State declared a distinction between church and state and ruled over the church. This introduced a period of religious freedom, which the world has not known in previous millennia.
Since the Reformation, the Roman Church has been able to institute a counter-reformation, and both theories, namely Antiochus and the futuristic Antichrist, have been developed by the counter-reformation. It has been so successful that today very few people identify the Roman Church any longer as the Antichrist of Daniel.
DESTROYED WHEN CHRIST RETURNS
Also, consider that the Roman Empire continues to exist, in the form of the 11th horn, until the return of Christ:
In Daniel 2, the legs of iron represent the Roman Empire. Rome continues in the feet because the feet are made partly of iron and partly of clay. The image continues to exist until it is struck at it feet by Christ’s return. Then the entire image evaporates (Dan 2:45).
Daniel 7 represents the great persecuting power as a horn that grows out of the fourth beast. This horn continues its evil work until the return of Christ (7:26).
Antiochus and a post-rapture Antichrist do not satisfy the requirement that the Roman Empire continues to exist, in the form of the evil king, until Christ returns. But the Church does.
However, consider the identifications provided by Daniel:
According to Daniel 7, “ten kings” will arise out of “this kingdom” (Rome) (v24). Rome’s territory did break up, over hundreds of years, into a large number of nations, such as the Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Vandals.
Each of the previous empires was conquered by one other empire. Babylon was conquered by Mede-Persia, Mede-Persia by Greece, and Greece by Rome. The prediction that the Roman Empire will divide in a large number of nations is therefore remarkable. This prediction was made long before it happened, even if one assumes Daniel was written in 165 BC.
This break-up happens before the 11th horn became dominant. How does this fit the Antiochus or the futuristic interpretations? The text of the prophecy is completely incompatible with these interpretations. The Antiochus interpretation is based on the proposal that Media is the second empire, Persia the third and Greece the fourth, which is contrary to the direct statement of the angel in Daniel 8:20, and contrary to the consistent information in Daniel that Mede-Persia was a single empire. But even if we accept their proposal that Media and Persia be split, what are the 10 horns on Greece? In Daniel 8 Greece is represented as a goat with four horns, not ten. And where to you find 10 horns that fit the futuristic interpretation? Remember that this Antichristian power of Daniel 7 subdues three of the horns. What three horns are subdues by Antiochus or by an end time Antichrist?The point is that there are identifying marks in Daniel, and we have to use them to identify the Antichrist, and not be guided by politically acceptable notions.
AFTER THEM: The eleventh horn will arise “after them” (v24). Initially the Roman Church was purely a church. It was only later that it also assumed political authority over other nations. After what ten horns did Antiochus or will an end time Antichrist arise?
DIFFERENT: “He will be different from the previous ones” (v24), which the Roman Church was, being partly religious, partly political.
SUBDUE THREE: The 11th horn “will subdue three kings” (v24). Certain Arian nations (Heruldi, Vandals and Ostrogoths), not believing in the deity of Christ, opposed the Church. They were subdued before the Church was able to become dominant. But these nations did continue to exist. In the end all 11 horns existed simultaneously. How does this satisfy the Antiochus or futuristic interpretations?
LARGER: The 11th horn is “larger in appearance than its associates” (v20). During the long dark period of history known as the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church dealt with a high hand. She made and unmade kings:
Emperors and kings had to … be in communion with the Pope, as essential conditions of their reigning lawfully; if these conditions were broken, of which the Pope was the judge, then … he could … declare their ruler unfit to reign. [Cath Dic, 257]
Sixtus V (Cath. Ency. I729) excommunicated Protestant Henry of Navarre, and sent an army to unseat him. Sixtus promised the Spanish King a subsidy for the Armada, with which England was to be subjugated. Let’s take a look at how Pope Gregory compels King Henry to freeze three days before he would receive him:
Striped of his royal robes, and clad as a penitent, Henry had to come barefooted mid ice and snow, and crave for admission to the presence of the pope. All day he remained at the door of the citadel, fasting and exposed to the inclemency of the wintry weather, but was refused admission. A second and third day he thus humiliated and disciplined himself, and finally on 28 January, l077, he was received by the pontiff and absolved from censure, but on condition that he would appear at the proposed council and submit himself to its decision. Cath. Ency. VI, 794
Imagine the head of a significant nation today having to ask the pope for forgiveness in this way. All of this shows how arrogant the Catholic Church was during the dark ages and how she ruled over the kingdoms of Europe.
WAR WITH THE SAINTS
The 11th horn was “waging war with the saints and overpowering them” (v21). Rome’s long history was marked with the shedding of the blood of saints. In 1208 Pope Innocent III warred against the Waldines and Albigines (Bohemian Brethren), in which one million perished. From the beginning of the Jesuits 1540-1580 it is estimated that 900,000 were destroyed through papal cruelty. One hundred fifty thousand perished by the inquisition in thirty years. In the low lands 50,000 persons were hanged, beheaded, burned alive or buried alive for the crime of heresy (Christianity). Within 38 years from the edict of Charles V, 18,000 were executed. The Popes tried to put down the reformation in Germany and Switzerland. One might consider the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, Martyrdom of John Calas, John Wycliff, John Huss, Jerome of Prague, Tyndale, Luther, Persecutions in Germany, France, Scotland, England, Ireland, persecution of Quakers. The historian W.E. H. Lecky says, “The Church of Rome has shed more innocent blood than any other institution that ever existed among mankind, will be questioned by no Protestant who has a complete knowledge of history.” Some historians have estimated that the persecuting hands of Rome have been reddened by the blood of fifty million saints. I doubt that anyone can come close to the exact number.
SPEAK AGAINST THE MOST HIGH
It will “speak out against the Most High” (v25). This may be found in statements by the Church claiming what belongs to God, for instance: “we (popes) hold on this earth the place of God Almighty.” Christ “is the head of the body” (Col 1:18), but the pope claims to be head of all churches. “Christ Jesus … will judge the living and the dead” (2 Tim. 4:1), but the Pope claims to be the Judge of the Living and the Dead. Jesus promised “I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may be with you forever; that is the Spirit of truth. (John 14:16-17), but the Pope claim to “hold upon this earth the place of God almighty”. Jesus said ” do not be called Rabbi; for One is your Teacher, and you are all brothers” (Mat 23:8), but the church claims that the supreme teacher in the church is the Roman Pontiff. For more information and references see the section on the Roman Church in the article on Babylon.
ALTER LAW: It will “intend to make alterations in times and in law” (Dan 7:25). The Church allows worship of images, and legalised many other sins, such as the forgiveness of sins for a price. She changed the laws with respect to the Lord’s Supper and enacted celibacy of the clergy. In 1075 Gregory VII declared all clerical marriages invalid. This was the greatest mass divorce in history. She changed the 10 commandments. The deification of Mary is really the continuation of the ancient Semiramis religion. The picture of the woman with the child in her arms is really a picture of Semiramis with a child (Tammuz).The Catholic Church acknowledges that its doctrines are not based on the Bible, but on “traditions”. First Timothy 4:1‑5 gives us one of the primary doctrines of the Antichrist, namely celibacy among the priests. This has led to horrible atrocities in the Roman Catholic Church. In Chiniquy’s book, Fifty Years in the Roman Catholic Church, he says that a young student priest was questioning a superior about this doctrine of Rome and received the following reply: “You have spoken as a true heretic…you speak of the Holy Scriptures just as a Protestant would. You appeal to them as the only source of Christian truth and knowledge. Have you forgotten that we have the holy traditionsto guide us, the authority of which is equal to the Scriptures?”Such a position nullified Scripture on the basis of human tradition(Mark7:13). It refuses to allow people to carry out their responsibility to function as Berean believers, “examining the Scriptures daily to see whether these things were so” (Acts 17:11).
TIME, TIMES AND HALF: The “saints … given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time” (v25). Because the “time, times and half a time” is the period of the prominent horn of Daniel 7 (v25), and because the horns of Daniel 7 are the kingdoms of Europe after Imperial Rome broke up, it is proposed that the “time, times and half a time” is a symbol for the Middle Ages. The only place outside of Daniel where the phrase “time, times and half a time” appears, is in Revelation 12. A study of the sequence of seven wars confirms that this is the Middle Ages. Please read the article “Overview of Revelation 12 to 14” for more information.
It is therefore concluded that the Roman Church fits the identifying marks provided by Daniel, and that the alternative theories do not
The next question is; how do the beasts of Revelation relate to the five empires of Daniel?
The first seven-headed beast that we come across in Revelation is the “great red Dragon having seven heads and ten horns” (12:3). It is also the seven-headed beast that disappears last from the scene. The Sea Beast disappears before the Millennium into the lake of fire (19:20, but the dragon is only thrown into the lake of fire after the Millennium (20:10).
Revelation 12 provides a high level overview of various wars between God and Satan, from the war between the woman and the serpent since the Garden of Eden, until the final great conflict of Revelation 13. In each of these wars the dragon is the antagonist, even the war in heaven (12:7-12).
In the context of the war in heaven, and when imprisoned during the Millennium, the dragon is specifically identified as Satan (12:7-9; 20:2) and as such exists for all human history. In this sense it continues to exist beyond the return of Christ (20:2), and only vanishes only from the pages of Revelation when it is thrown in the lake of fire after the Millennium (20:10).
However, when first introduced as standing before the woman, it is presented as having 7 heads and 10 horns (12:3). Both the heads and the horns are “kings” (17:10, 12). The dragon therefore also represents kingdoms. Because it has exactly 7 heads and 10 horns it is part of the continuum of beasts of Daniel 7. Therefore, when in conflict with the woman’s Child Jesus (12:5), it represents the specific earthly authority at the time of Jesus’s earthly life, namely the fourth kingdom (beast) in Daniel 7, which is the Roman Empire. This is supported by the observation that “dragon” would be a good name for the fourth beats of Daniel 7.
The article titled “overview of Revelation 12 to 14” indicates that the dragon is involved in various others wars, such as:
- The war against the woman before the “time, times and half a time” (12:13)
- The war against the woman during the “time, times and half a time” (12:14, 15)
- The war against the woman’s “other children” (12:17), which follows after the “time, times and half a time”, and is the war of Revelation 13
As discussed in the article on the overview of Revelation 12 to 14, some of these wars are beyond the time of Imperial Rome. “Dragon”, in these wars, may then represent either Satan or the continuing influence of the Roman Empire.
The Sea-beast is frequently mentioned as working with the Dragon (e.g. 16:13), which means it is not the same as the Dragon. The Sea Beast is here identified as the 11th horn of Daniel 7, namely the Roman Church, for the following reasons:
- Because the Sea Beast also has 7 heads and 10 horns (13:1) it must, like the dragon, be part of the continuum of empires of Daniel 7.
- The Sea Beast inherits something for each of the first four beasts of Daniel 7 (compare Rev 13:2 with the beasts of Daniel 7):
- like a leopard (Greece);
- feet were like those of a bear (Medo-Persia);
- mouth like the mouth of a lion (Babylon);
- throne and great authority from the dragon (Rome) (13:2)
Because the Sea-beast inherits something from each of the four animals of Daniel 7, it must come in existence after them. Therefore it is the fifth; namely the 11th horn.
- It is the Dragon that calls up the Beast from the Sea (13:1) and the Dragon gave the Sea Beast his power and his throne and great authority (13:2). This implies that the Sea Beast is the Dragon’s successor. Since the dragon is the Roman Empire (when represented as having seven heads and ten horns), and since the 11th horn is the real successor of the Roman Empire (Daniel 7), the Sea Beast is the 11th horn.
- Further comparisons of the 11th horn with the Sea-beast will verify this conclusion.
- Both persecute the saints for “a time, times, and half a time” (Dan 7:25; Rev 13:5). (Comparing 12:6 to 12:14 proves that “a time, times, and half a time” is equal to 1260 days, and 42 months x 30 days = 1260 days.)
- Both overpower the saints (Dan 7:21; Rev 13:7).
- Both blaspheme God (Dan 7:8, 20; Rev 15:5).
The Sea Beast goes through three phases. It first arises from the sea, then dies and then is resurrected (13:3, 4). After its resurrection “the whole earth was amazed and followed after the beast” (13:3). All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been slain (13:8; 17:8). We have therefore now effectively identified seven phases:
- 11th horn after it arose from the sea
- 11th horn after it died
- 11th horn resurrected
THE SCARLET BEAST IS DIFFERENT
The Scarlet Beast of Revelation 17 is mentioned briefly in 11:7, but is described more fully in Revelation 17. The Scarlet Beast is not the same as the Sea Beast of Revelation 13:
They differ in terms of associates:
- The Sea Beast receives it power from the Dragon (13:2) and gives his authority to the Land Beast (13:12). In Revelation we often find this evil trio working together (e.g. 16:13; 19:20-20:2). In contrast the Scarlet Beast is never mentioned as working with or having a relationship with any of this trio.
- The Scarlet Beast is mentioned with Babylon, while the evil trio (Dragon, Sea Beast and Land Beast) is never mentioned in the same breath as Babylon. It almost seems as if different sets of symbols are used in Revelation 13 and 17.
In Revelation 13 the people worship the Sea Beast (13:3-4). The Sea Beast therefore reigns. In contrast, in Revelation 17 the harlot sits on the Scarlet Beast (17:3). She therefore rules over the Scarlet Beast (17:18), while the Scarlet Beast is presented in a subservient role. Therefore, while the Sea Beast rules, the Scarlet Beast is ruled over.
The relationships between the beasts and the peoples of the world are also different. In Revelation 13 the Sea Beast is worshipped by the people, and is therefore something apart from the people. In contrast, in Revelation 17 the harlot (Babylon) sits on both the beast and the waters (people—17:1, 15), indicating a close relationship between the beast and the people.
SCARLET BEAST IS …
It is therefore clear that the Scarlet Beast is something very different from the Dragon and the Sea Beast. But the Scarlet Beast must relate in some way to the beasts of Daniel 7 because it has seven heads and ten horns. So what is going on? Observations from the text include:
- The Scarlet Beast exists for all of human history:The harlot is identified in the article on Babylon as “false religion”. The harlot (Babylon) exists for all of human history because “in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints and of all who have been slain on the earth” (18:24), and because she is the “mother (origin) of harlots” (17:5). If she exists for all human history, the same must apply to the scarlet beast.In contrast, the Sea Beast of Revelation 13 is a specific organisation, coming into existence at a specific point in time, when it comes out of the sea (13:1) of the human population (Daniel 7:3, 17).
- The Scarlet Beast represents the “kings of the earth”:The harlot (Babylon) sitting on the Scarlet Beast is explained in 17:18:
“The woman whom you saw is the great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth”.
Because the Scarlet Beast represents the “kings” and kingdoms of the world, and because it exists for the whole of human history, it must represent all the kingdoms of Daniel 7. It cannot be limited to only one of those kingdoms. It therefore includes both the Dragon and the Sea Beast.
- The Sea Beast includes Babylon. This is clear when the Sea Beast “make war with the saints and to overcome them” (13:7), while actually Babylon must carry the blame for all martyr deaths of God’s people (18:24). This is also indicated by the fact that the Sea Beast is in charge, similar to Babylon.
Revelation 17 therefore presents the anti-God powers for all of human history, but shows that it consists of two components; a political (beast) and a religious (harlot) component, with the religious component reigning over the political. It is further proposed that the Sea Beast represents that same anti-God power, consisting of both the political and religious components, but limited to one specific organisation in one period of human history.
The symbolism of Revelation 17 informs us that the kingdoms of the world are always under the control of the deceiving influence of Babylon. Babylon corrupts the minds of the people (17:2) and kills the saints (18:24). Babylon exists during all the empires of Daniel 7.