Jesus is better than the Levitical priesthood

Tabernacle

Jesus is our high priest in the true tabernacle, which is in heaven. The Levitical priesthood, with its earthly tabernacle, was only a copy of the reality in heaven, and could therefore not free people from guilt for sin. Only Jesus, who offered a better sacrifice, and who is the mediator of better covenant-promises, and who is permanently appointed as high priest according to the greater order of Melchizedek, is really able to take sin away; even sin committed under the first covenant.

Purpose

The main point in the letter to the Hebrews is that Jesus is our high priest in the true tabernacle (8:1-2).  Hebrews is one of the most difficult books in the Bible.  This article is the second in a series of articles aimed to provide an overview of Hebrews’ teachings of Christ as our high priest. The first article discussed How Jesus became high priest.  This current article discusses the many proofs provided by Hebrews that Jesus’ priesthood is better than the Levitical priesthood.

The Levitical priesthood was a copy of the heavenly things.

What happens in heaven, is true reality.  The Levitical priesthood was a mere copy and shadow of the heavenly things:

 

 

8:5 The priests on “earth” (8:4) “serve copy and shadow of the heavenly things”.

9:11When Christ appeared as a high priest of the good things to come, He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation”.

9:24Christ did not enter a holy place made with hands, a mere copy of the true one, but into heaven itself”.

These verses seem to say that the earthly tabernacle was a “copy and shadow of the heavenly things”.  But it was not only the earthly tabernacle that was a copy and shadow of the things in heaven; the entire system of priests and sacrifices was a copy and shadow of “the heavenly things” (8:5) or of “heaven itself” (9:24):

10:1For the Law, since it has only a shadow of the good things to come and not the very form of things (NIV – the realities themselves), can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near”.

In this verse “the Law” is “only a shadow”.  As can be seen from this verse as well as from others (7:12, 16, 19, 28), the “law” in Hebrews often refers specifically to the laws regarding the system of priests and sacrifices. 

We conclude then that, what happens in heaven, is real.  The tabernacle and its ceremonies were only symbols and types of that invisible reality, and are therefore decisively inferior.

The Levitical priesthood could not take sins away.

Hebrews may be described as the better-book because the word “better” is found frequently in the letter and because so much of the book argues that Christ is better than the Old Testament.  Another way in which Hebrews does this is to argue that the Levitical priesthood was unable to take sins away, as indicated by the verses quoted below.

7:11 “if perfection was through the Levitical priesthood .., what further need was there for another priest to arise”?

This implies that perfection is indeed possible through the “another priest”, which is Jesus.  Hebrews uses the word “perfect” in a fairly unique way, namely to says that people have been made “perfect” when their sins have been taken away (forgiven) (10:1, 4; cf. 7:11, 19; 9:9; 10:14; 11:40; 12:23).

7:18-19 “There is a setting aside of a former commandment because of its weakness and uselessness (for the Law made nothing perfect), and on the other hand there is a bringing in of a better hope, through which we draw near to God”.

The Law

The “former commandment” and the “Law” refer to the Law of Moses (7:28), but as discussed above, it refers specifically to the laws regarding the system of priests and sacrifices.  Given the immediate context (7:19), the “better hope” is for perfection.

8:6 “He is also the mediator of a better covenant, which has been enacted on better promises.  For if that first covenant had been faultless, there would have been no occasion sought for a second”.

Hebrews never refers to the “old covenant”.  It always calls it the “first covenant” (8:7; 9:1, 15, 18), in contrast to the “new covenant”.  As shown below, on the basis of chapter 10, the main purpose of the new covenant, for the writer of Hebrews, is that “their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no more” (10:17).  In this respect the first covenant was not “faultless”.  The new covenant is “better” (8:6) because it promises that God will remember “their lawless deeds” no more.

9:9 the present time. … sacrifices are offered which cannot make the worshiper perfect in conscience, 10 … imposed until a time of reformation. 11 But when Christ appeared as a high priest …., He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle … 12 … through His own blood …. 14 how much more will the blood of Christ … cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?

These verses contrast the “present time” (9:9) with “a time of reformation” (9:10).  In “the present timesacrifices are offered which cannot make the worshiper perfect in conscience” (9:9).  To be “perfect in conscience” may be understood as certainty that your sins are forgiven.  The NIV translates it as “clear the conscience of the worshiper“.

At the “time of reformation” (9:10) “Christ appeared as a high priest” and “entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle … through His own blood” (9:11-12) to “cleanse your conscience” (9:14).

10:1, 4 “For the Law … can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near. …  For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.

10:11 “Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins”.

The argument that the old sacrificial system cannot take away sin was therefore very important to the writer of Hebrews.  Only “the blood of Christ … (will) cleanse your conscience from dead works” (9:14).  10:1 links this concept to the fact that the Levitical system was a copy, saying that the Levitical system cannot take away sin exactly because it was only a copy of true reality.

The verses quoted above use many different phrases as synonyms for God forgiving the sins of people, and unless one is aware of this, these verses may be difficult to follow.  Note therefore these parallel phrases:

take away sins” (10:4, 11);
make perfect” (7:19; 10:1) and “perfection” (7:11);
cleanse your conscience” (9:14);
make the worshiper perfect in conscience” (9:9);

Notice also how many times the word better has been used in the quotations above.  A “better hope“, “better covenant” and “better promises” were mentioned.

Jesus offered a better sacrifice.

This subject is related to the previous one, for Christ is able to make people perfect because He offered a better sacrifice.  Hebrews, however, separates these two concepts to some extent.  Statements that the Levitical system was unable to make people perfect are found in chapters 7 to 10, while the statements about the “better sacrifice” (9:23) are concentrated in chapters 9 and 10.  

Chapter 8 starts by saying that “every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices; so it is necessary that this high priest also have something to offer” (8:3).  “This high priest” is Jesus (7:28).  After chapter 8 added that He has a better tabernacle (8:5) and better covenant-promises (8:6-13), chapters 9 and 10 return to the subject of His better sacrifice:

Sacrificed Himself

9:13-14 “For if the blood of goats and bulls … sprinkling those who have been defiled sanctify for the cleansing of the flesh, how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?

The previous section above already mentioned these verses, but our purpose now is to focus specifically on Christ’s better sacrifice.  In these verses “the blood of goats and bulls” is contrasted with “the blood of Christ”.  “The blood of goats and bullssanctify for the cleansing of the flesh” while “the blood of Christcleanse your conscience from dead works”.  “The blood of goats and bulls” therefore only cleans the outside, while “the blood of Christ” cleans the inside.

9:15 His death even redeems the “transgressions that were committed under the first covenant” (9:15).

9:18-23 With the inauguration (9:18) of the first covenant Moses ceremonially cleansed the earthly tabernacle (9:19-23) with “the blood of the calves and the goats” (9:19) “but the heavenly things themselves (were cleansed with) with better sacrifices than these” (9:23).

The blood of Christ cleaned the “things in the heavens”.  His sacrifice is as much “better” than the animal sacrifices as the tabernacle in heaven is greater than the earthly tabernacle.

Note again the word “better“; this time “better sacrifices“.

Why was it necessary to clean the “heavenly things” (9:23)?  As has been shown above, Hebrews uses different words and phrases for the same thing.  Hebrews is also highly symbolic or idiomatic.  The word “inaugurated” is also found in 10:20, where it says that “His flesh” “inaugurated for us” “a new and living way” “through the veil”.  The “veil” is symbolically the door of the tabernacle in heaven.  It is therefore proposed that the cleaning of the “heavenly things” is the same as the preparation of the “new and living way” into the tabernacle in heaven, and that both these are symbolic expressions of Christ entering “into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us” (9:24).  This will be discussed further in the next article.

Here the writer alternatives effortlessly between referring to blood and to sacrifices.  Blood and sacrifices are obviously related.  The animals were killed outside the tabernacle.  Their blood was then brought into the tabernacle to atone for the sins of the people.  These are symbolic of what happens in true reality; Jesus was sacrificed outside the true tabernacle (on earth) and then the evidence of His death (symbolically His blood) was brought into the true tabernacle (heaven itself) to atone for the sins of the people.

9:25-28 While “the high priest enters the holy place year by year with blood that is not his own”, Christ have “been offered once to bear the sins of many”.

According to these verses Jesus offered a better sacrifice for two reasons; His sacrifice is really able to take sin away and a single sacrifice was sufficient.  Chapter 10 is the last chapter that substantively deals with Christ as our high priest, and it continues the contrast between the sacrifices that were offered endlessly year after year and day after day (10:1, 8, 11), but could never take away the sins of those who draw near to God (10:1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11), and Jesus’ once for all sacrifice (10:12), by which He made perfect forever those who are being made holy (10:14, 10).

Jesus is priest according to the greater order of Melchizedek.

Jesus is “priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek” (5:6, cf. 5:10; 6:20).  This is a quote from Psalm 110:4, which refers to an amazing incident recorded in Genesis 14, where “Melchizedek” comes out of nowhere and is called “priest of God Most High” (Gen. 14:18).  Psalm 110, which is accepted as a Messianic psalm (see Psalm 110:1) also amazingly, picks up on this incident and by implication calls Jesus a high priest “according to the order of Melchizedek”.  By emphasizing the greatness of Melchizedek, Hebrews uses this psalm to show the greatness of Jesus’ priesthood :

Melchizedek blesses Abraham

Melchizedek blessed Abraham (Gen. 14:19) and, as Hebrews 7:7 points out, the greater always blesses the lesser, which means that Melchizedek was greater than Abraham, even though Abraham “had the promises” from God (7:6).

Abraham also gave Melchizedek “a tenth of all” (Gen. 1:20) and, as Hebrews 7:9-10 notes, Levi therefore effectively gave “a tenth of all” to Melchizedek, which implies that the Melchizedek priesthood is greater than the Levitical priesthood.

Melchizedek “remains a priest perpetually” (7:3).

The writer argues, since Melchizedek is greater than Abraham, and therefore greater than the Levites, who came out of Abraham, that the Melchizedek priesthood is greater than the Levitical priesthood.  And since Jesus is “priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek”, He is greater than the Levitical priests.

Other reasons why Christ’s priesthood is better:

Above it was argued that Christ’s priesthood is better that the Levitical priesthood because:

(1) The Levitical priesthood was a mere copy and shadow of the reality in heaven.
(2) Only Christ’s priesthood is really able to take sins away.
(3) Jesus offered a better sacrifice.
(4) Jesus is priest according to the order of Melchizedek, and therefore greater than the Levitical priests.

To these the following may be added::

(5) Jesus is mediator of a better covenant, with better promises (7:22; 8:6; 9:15).
(6)
He became high priest forever (6:20).
(7) The “Law appoints men as high priests who are weak” (7:28), but Jesus is “innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners” (7:26-28).

The Levitical priesthood was set aside.

Jesus is not only superior to the Levitical priest, the entire Levitical priesthood was set aside by Him:

7:18There is a setting aside of a former commandment”.
8:13 When He said, ‘A new covenant,’ He has made the first obsolete.”
10:9 He takes away the first  (animal sacrifices – 10:4, 8) in order to establish the second (the offering of the body of Jesus Christ – 10:10)”.

Next: Jesus appears before God for us.

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How Jesus became our High Priest

Why was it necessary for Jesus to suffer?  And why was it necessary for Him to remain without sin?  When did He become our high priest?

Tabernacle in heaven

Summary of this article: The main point in the letter to be Hebrews is that Jesus is our high priest, serving in the true tabernacle in heaven.  To become high priest, He first had to suffer, because He learned obedience from what He suffered.  Being made perfect, He offered Himself without blemish to God; one sacrifice for sins for all time.  After His resurrection, Jesus sat down on His Father’s throne.  He then became our high priest, with the inauguration of the new covenant by the cleansing of the things in the heavens by His blood.

Purpose

Although no other letter in the New Testament explicitly teaches this, the “main point” of the letter to the Hebrews, to which about five chapters are devoted (4:14-10:31), is that Jesus is our high priest in the true tabernacle:

Now the main point in what has been said is this:
we have such a high priest, who has taken His seat at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens, a minister in the sanctuary and in the
true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, not man” (8:1-2).

The previous verse (7:28) identifies this high priest is as the Son of God .

Hebrews is one of the most difficult books in the Bible.  Not only are the concepts complex; the highly symbolic and idiomatic language of the letter makes it even more difficult.

The purpose of this article is to give a simple as possible overview of Hebrews’ teachings of Christ as our high priest.  The relevant material from the letter is grouped into sub-topics, and discussed below in what seems to be a logical sequence.

Unless otherwise indicated, all quotations are from the NASB.

Jesus was perfected through suffering.

As will be shown below, Hebrews uses the phrase “made perfect” for people whose sins have been forgiven (for instance 12:23).  But Hebrews also describes Jesus as “made perfect”.  He was “made perfect” through what He suffered:

2:10 It was fitting for Him (the Father) … in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation (Jesus) through sufferings”.

5:8-9Although He was a Son, He learned obedience from the things which He suffered, and having been made perfect” (5:8).

7:28 He was “made perfect forever”.

Because He was made perfect, He was able to offer “Himself without blemish to God” (9:14).

Jesus was fully human

That Jesus was made perfect does not mean that His sins have been forgiven, for He never sinned (4:15).  This concept may be unfamiliar to us because we very often think of Jesus as God, which is not wrong, but we often fail to think of Him as a fully human being that had to learn like any other human being.  Hebrews teaches that Jesus became a human being in every respect: “He had to be made like His brethren in all things” (2:17).  Jesus therefore indeed developed through what He suffered.

Hebrews, similar to the other letters of the New Testament, emphasizes Christ’s death, as we will see below.  But Hebrews put more emphasizes on His life than what other letters do: specifically on His suffering, which also was His temptation:

2:18He Himself was tempted in that which He has suffered“.

4:15He was tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin”.

Gethsemane

Don’t miss this point: His suffering was His temptation.  He was tempted to prevent or lessen His suffering, for He was able to that (Mt 26:53), but he patiently “endured such hostility by sinners against Himself” (Heb. 12:3).

Through death Jesus made purification of sins.

A question that arises, when reading Hebrews, is how people are saved, for Hebrews seems to say that people are saved through Jesus’ work as our high priest.  But Hebrews also agrees with other letters that “through death Jesus made purification of sins” (1:3).  Each of the verses quoted below refers to both His death and to dealing with sin:

9:26Now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself”.

9:28Christ … offered once to bear the sins of many”.

10:12He … offered one sacrifice for sins for all time”.

13:12Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people through His own blood, suffered outside the gate”.

If this is so, what is the purpose of Jesus’ role as our high priest, which is so prominent in Hebrews?  The relationship between His death and His work as high priest, in the redemption of the world, is discussed in a separate article.

After His resurrection, Jesus sat down on His Father’s throne.

This is a well-known New Testament teaching, based on Psalm 110:1.  Hebrews often confirms this truth, saying that Jesus, after His resurrection, passed through the heavens (4:14) and “sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high” (1:3, cf. 13; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2).

Jesus became high priest when He sat down on His Father’s throne.

When did Jesus become high priest?  Was He also high priest in Old Testament times?  The following indicates that Jesus’ life and death allowed Him to become high priest:

2:17 Jesus “had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest”.

9:11-12When Christ appeared as a high priest …, He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle … through His own blood”.

Jesus therefore became high priest after His death, namely when he “sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high”.  These are one and the same event.  To understand Hebrews, one needs to get used to how the writer thinks.  He knew the Old Testament extremely well, and the Old Testament passage that is most quoted in the New Testament is Psalm 110.  Verse 1 of that psalm is interpreted by the New Testament as God saying to Jesus:

Sit at My right hand Until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet”.

Then verse 4 adds

You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek”.

The writer of Hebrews makes the assumption, since verse 1 applies to Jesus, that verse 4 also applies to Jesus.  This is something which the writer of Hebrews often do, namely to link things that are not clearly linked in the original text.  He therefore merges verses 1 and 4 into a single statement, which would mean that He became priest when He sat down on His Father’s throne.

But the writer goes further.  Since Jesus, according to Psalm 110:1, enters God’s immediate presence, and since only the high priest was able to enter into God’s presence (Ex. 25:22), the writer promotes the “priest” in Psalm 110:4 to “high priest” (see quotations above).  This something else that we must learn about the writer of Hebrews: He continuously quotes from the Old Testament, but he does so with significant freedom.  He adds or changes words and phrases to fit the point that he wants to make.  But that is okay.  The Bible is not inspired word for word; the writers are inspired with concepts, and they themselves must find the best possible words to express those concepts.

But it remains symbolic language.  The earthly tabernacle, with all its ceremonies, was only a symbol of reality (8:5; 9:8-9; 10:1).  For that reason, and because his Jewish Christian readers were familiar with the earthly tabernacle, the writer uses the earthly tabernacle with its ceremonies to explain the unseen but real events in heaven, which we only dimly understand.

Christ’s death enabled Him to become our high priest.

Hebrews 9 describes the inauguration of Jesus’s ministry in heaven.  The first 15 verses form a unit.  It starts with a description of the earthly tabernacle with its daily and annual ceremonies (9:1-7).  It then states that these ceremonies are symbols of what happens in heaven (9:8-9), and explains what these symbols meant:

Jesus entering the true tabernacle

When Christ appeared as a high priest …,
He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation;
and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, …
For … how much more will the blood of Christ … cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
” (9:11-12)

In other words, Jesus’s death permitted or qualified Him to commence His work as high priest; His death was a prerequisite for entering the holy place.

Tabernacle in the wilderness

The second unit in Hebrews 9 (verses 16 and following) also starts by describing an aspect of the earthly tabernacle, this time the inauguration of the first covenant.  This ritual was performed by Moses 1500 years before Christ, when he used the blood of animals to clean the tabernacle (9:18-23).  Hebrews then implies that the cleansing of the tabernacle by Moses was a symbol of the cleansing of “the heavenly things themselves”.  The earthly “copies of the things in the heavens” were cleansed by the blood of animals, but the “heavenly things themselves” were cleansed with “better sacrifices” (9:23), namely “the sacrifice of Himself” (9:26).

To conclude then, in both units (9:1-15 and 9:16-24) Christ’s offering of Himself, as symbolized by His blood, enabled Him to commence His ministry on the new covenant in heaven.  This is consistent with the conclusion of the previous section above, namely that Jesus became high priest at his ascension to heaven, when He sat down on His Father’s throne.

Satan expelled from heaven

Hebrews does not explain why the “the heavenly things” had to be cleansed.  As stated above, this is symbolic language, but that does not mean it is meaningless.  It means that it must be interpreted.  It is often said and thought that the blood of Christ satisfies the demands of God’s righteousness.  Such thinking is not accepted here.  According to 2:14 He died to render the devil powerless.  And in Revelation 12 we see that the war in heaven against “the serpent of old who is called the devil and Satan” (Rev. 12:9) was brought to an end by Christ’s death. “The heavenly things” were cleansed by expelling Satan from it.  The See War in Heaven and Why Jesus had to die.

NEXT:  Jesus is a better high priest

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