Hebrews 1:1-2 The New Testament has a higher authority because God spoke it in His Own Son, who is heir of all things, through whom also He made the world and who still upholds all things.

Hebrews 1:1-2 God, after He spoke long ago to the fathers in the prophets in many portions and in many ways, in these last days has spoken to us in His Son. (New American Standard)

The Two Testaments

These verses contrast the two testaments:

What God spoke long ago in the prophets represents the Old Testament.

Son of manWhat God spoke in these last days in His Son refers to the New Testament, or perhaps more accurately, the Four Gospels.

The writer is saying with this contrast that the Four Gospels have a much higher authority because God spoke it in His Own Son, who is heir of all things, through whom also He made the world and who still upholds all things (Hebrews 1:2-3).

Hebrews frequently quotes the Old Testament.  It uses the Old Testament to show that the Four Gospels have a much higher authority.  For this reason the writer starts in Hebrews 1:1 by affirming the Old Testament as the Word of God.

New TestamentSome Bible interpretations effectively classify the Four Gospels as part of the Old Testament, while the New Testament letters are used as the basis for Christianity.  But Hebrews tells us that the four gospels are the foundation of the New Testament.

 

 

God Spoke

In these verses it is God that spoke; not the prophets and not His Son.

We should be amazed that the infinite and eternal God should speak to man; a speck of dust floating in the unending expanse of the universe.  But this reflects His love for man; “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son” (John 3:16).

God exists outside the limits of space, time and matter. If God had not spoken, we would have known anything about Him, and we would have floating around in this immeasurable universe without hope. But God has spoken, and we therefore do have hope.

The fathers include Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.  They are also the spiritual fathers of Gentile Christians believers (Rom. 4:16; Gal. 3:29).

Last Days

Last DaysThe phrase last days is commonly understood as meaning ‘recently’.  However, Jesus said, His disciples believed and the entire New Testament—including Hebrews (9:26; 10:25, 36-37)—teach that the Lord is coming soon.  The phrase “these last days” therefore indicates the writer’s belief that his generation was to be the last generation before Christ’s return.  Please see Why did He Not Return in the First Century as He promised?

His Son

Even though 1:2 says that God “has spoken to us in His Son”, the writer and his readers had not actually heard Jesus (2:3).  They were second-generation Christians.  Hebrews was written more than 30 years after Christ’s death.

The title “His Son” (1:2) signifies His unique relationship to God, just like the title “Son of man” designates His relationship to man.

Jesus as babyGod created everything through His Son (1:2).  His Son therefore always existed.  To become a human being, His Son emptied Himself of glory, power and even wisdom.  He became a helpless human baby, had to develop like any other human being, and was utterly dependent on God.

The most wonderful event ever in the existence of mankind is that the Son of God should have come from heaven to teach mankind.  But equally amazing is how few listened to Him when He was on the earth, and how few still regard Him today.

Conclusion

This letter to the Hebrews does not have an introduction like we would find in other letters.  In Hebrews the first three verses serve as an introduction, but also immediately confront the reader with the main theme of this epistle, which is the superiority of Christ, and therefore the higher authority of His message.

This is a summary.
To read the full article, see God Spoke.

How Jesus became our High Priest

Why was it necessary for Jesus to suffer?  And why was it necessary for Him to remain without sin?  When did He become our high priest?

Tabernacle in heaven

Summary of this article: The main point in the letter to be Hebrews is that Jesus is our high priest, serving in the true tabernacle in heaven.  To become high priest, He first had to suffer, because He learned obedience from what He suffered.  Being made perfect, He offered Himself without blemish to God; one sacrifice for sins for all time.  After His resurrection, Jesus sat down on His Father’s throne.  He then became our high priest, with the inauguration of the new covenant by the cleansing of the things in the heavens by His blood.

Purpose

Although no other letter in the New Testament explicitly teaches this, the “main point” of the letter to the Hebrews, to which about five chapters are devoted (4:14-10:31), is that Jesus is our high priest in the true tabernacle:

Now the main point in what has been said is this:
we have such a high priest, who has taken His seat at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens, a minister in the sanctuary and in the
true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, not man” (8:1-2).

The previous verse (7:28) identifies this high priest is as the Son of God .

Hebrews is one of the most difficult books in the Bible.  Not only are the concepts complex; the highly symbolic and idiomatic language of the letter makes it even more difficult.

The purpose of this article is to give a simple as possible overview of Hebrews’ teachings of Christ as our high priest.  The relevant material from the letter is grouped into sub-topics, and discussed below in what seems to be a logical sequence.

Unless otherwise indicated, all quotations are from the NASB.

Jesus was perfected through suffering.

As will be shown below, Hebrews uses the phrase “made perfect” for people whose sins have been forgiven (for instance 12:23).  But Hebrews also describes Jesus as “made perfect”.  He was “made perfect” through what He suffered:

2:10 It was fitting for Him (the Father) … in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation (Jesus) through sufferings”.

5:8-9Although He was a Son, He learned obedience from the things which He suffered, and having been made perfect” (5:8).

7:28 He was “made perfect forever”.

Because He was made perfect, He was able to offer “Himself without blemish to God” (9:14).

Jesus was fully human

That Jesus was made perfect does not mean that His sins have been forgiven, for He never sinned (4:15).  This concept may be unfamiliar to us because we very often think of Jesus as God, which is not wrong, but we often fail to think of Him as a fully human being that had to learn like any other human being.  Hebrews teaches that Jesus became a human being in every respect: “He had to be made like His brethren in all things” (2:17).  Jesus therefore indeed developed through what He suffered.

Hebrews, similar to the other letters of the New Testament, emphasizes Christ’s death, as we will see below.  But Hebrews put more emphasizes on His life than what other letters do: specifically on His suffering, which also was His temptation:

2:18He Himself was tempted in that which He has suffered“.

4:15He was tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin”.

Gethsemane

Don’t miss this point: His suffering was His temptation.  He was tempted to prevent or lessen His suffering, for He was able to that (Mt 26:53), but he patiently “endured such hostility by sinners against Himself” (Heb. 12:3).

Through death Jesus made purification of sins.

A question that arises, when reading Hebrews, is how people are saved, for Hebrews seems to say that people are saved through Jesus’ work as our high priest.  But Hebrews also agrees with other letters that “through death Jesus made purification of sins” (1:3).  Each of the verses quoted below refers to both His death and to dealing with sin:

9:26Now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself”.

9:28Christ … offered once to bear the sins of many”.

10:12He … offered one sacrifice for sins for all time”.

13:12Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people through His own blood, suffered outside the gate”.

If this is so, what is the purpose of Jesus’ role as our high priest, which is so prominent in Hebrews?  The relationship between His death and His work as high priest, in the redemption of the world, is discussed in a separate article.

After His resurrection, Jesus sat down on His Father’s throne.

This is a well-known New Testament teaching, based on Psalm 110:1.  Hebrews often confirms this truth, saying that Jesus, after His resurrection, passed through the heavens (4:14) and “sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high” (1:3, cf. 13; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2).

Jesus became high priest when He sat down on His Father’s throne.

When did Jesus become high priest?  Was He also high priest in Old Testament times?  The following indicates that Jesus’ life and death allowed Him to become high priest:

2:17 Jesus “had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest”.

9:11-12When Christ appeared as a high priest …, He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle … through His own blood”.

Jesus therefore became high priest after His death, namely when he “sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high”.  These are one and the same event.  To understand Hebrews, one needs to get used to how the writer thinks.  He knew the Old Testament extremely well, and the Old Testament passage that is most quoted in the New Testament is Psalm 110.  Verse 1 of that psalm is interpreted by the New Testament as God saying to Jesus:

Sit at My right hand Until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet”.

Then verse 4 adds

You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek”.

The writer of Hebrews makes the assumption, since verse 1 applies to Jesus, that verse 4 also applies to Jesus.  This is something which the writer of Hebrews often do, namely to link things that are not clearly linked in the original text.  He therefore merges verses 1 and 4 into a single statement, which would mean that He became priest when He sat down on His Father’s throne.

But the writer goes further.  Since Jesus, according to Psalm 110:1, enters God’s immediate presence, and since only the high priest was able to enter into God’s presence (Ex. 25:22), the writer promotes the “priest” in Psalm 110:4 to “high priest” (see quotations above).  This something else that we must learn about the writer of Hebrews: He continuously quotes from the Old Testament, but he does so with significant freedom.  He adds or changes words and phrases to fit the point that he wants to make.  But that is okay.  The Bible is not inspired word for word; the writers are inspired with concepts, and they themselves must find the best possible words to express those concepts.

But it remains symbolic language.  The earthly tabernacle, with all its ceremonies, was only a symbol of reality (8:5; 9:8-9; 10:1).  For that reason, and because his Jewish Christian readers were familiar with the earthly tabernacle, the writer uses the earthly tabernacle with its ceremonies to explain the unseen but real events in heaven, which we only dimly understand.

Christ’s death enabled Him to become our high priest.

Hebrews 9 describes the inauguration of Jesus’s ministry in heaven.  The first 15 verses form a unit.  It starts with a description of the earthly tabernacle with its daily and annual ceremonies (9:1-7).  It then states that these ceremonies are symbols of what happens in heaven (9:8-9), and explains what these symbols meant:

Jesus entering the true tabernacle

When Christ appeared as a high priest …,
He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation;
and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, …
For … how much more will the blood of Christ … cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
” (9:11-12)

In other words, Jesus’s death permitted or qualified Him to commence His work as high priest; His death was a prerequisite for entering the holy place.

Tabernacle in the wilderness

The second unit in Hebrews 9 (verses 16 and following) also starts by describing an aspect of the earthly tabernacle, this time the inauguration of the first covenant.  This ritual was performed by Moses 1500 years before Christ, when he used the blood of animals to clean the tabernacle (9:18-23).  Hebrews then implies that the cleansing of the tabernacle by Moses was a symbol of the cleansing of “the heavenly things themselves”.  The earthly “copies of the things in the heavens” were cleansed by the blood of animals, but the “heavenly things themselves” were cleansed with “better sacrifices” (9:23), namely “the sacrifice of Himself” (9:26).

To conclude then, in both units (9:1-15 and 9:16-24) Christ’s offering of Himself, as symbolized by His blood, enabled Him to commence His ministry on the new covenant in heaven.  This is consistent with the conclusion of the previous section above, namely that Jesus became high priest at his ascension to heaven, when He sat down on His Father’s throne.

Satan expelled from heaven

Hebrews does not explain why the “the heavenly things” had to be cleansed.  As stated above, this is symbolic language, but that does not mean it is meaningless.  It means that it must be interpreted.  It is often said and thought that the blood of Christ satisfies the demands of God’s righteousness.  Such thinking is not accepted here.  According to 2:14 He died to render the devil powerless.  And in Revelation 12 we see that the war in heaven against “the serpent of old who is called the devil and Satan” (Rev. 12:9) was brought to an end by Christ’s death. “The heavenly things” were cleansed by expelling Satan from it.  The See War in Heaven and Why Jesus had to die.

NEXT:  Jesus is a better high priest

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