The Historical-Messianic interpretation is the traditional understanding of Daniel 9. In this interpretation the 490 years are an extension of God’s covenant with Israel, which was based on Israel’s Sabbath Year cycle. Jesus confirmed God’s covenant with Israel during the last seven of the 490 years.
This interpretation is called Messianic because it understands the Messiah to be the one who confirms the covenant for the seven last years. It is called historical because the full 490 years is interpreted as past history.
Daniel 9 has been understood in such way ever since the early church. It is only in the recent centuries that Dispensationalism and Liberal Criticism have become the dominant views.
Below the Daniel 9 prophecy is explained from the Historical-Messianic perspective. The explanation will be phrase by phrase.
For discussions of the other interpretations of Daniel 9, see:
24a Seventy weeks have been decreed for your people and your holy city (9:24)
These were Gabriel’s opening words.
Israel’s calendar followed a seven-year cycle in which every seventh year was a Sabbath Year for the land (Lev. 25). The 70 weeks are 70 of those Sabbath Year cycles, and consequently equal to 490 literal years.
By implication, these seventy weeks have decreed by God, for Gabriel brought this message from God (9:22).
“Your people and your holy city” refer to Israel and Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the capital and symbol of the Jewish nation.
Covenant in Daniel 9
This concept is fundamental to understanding many things in this prophecy. It also helps to explain the Seventy Weeks. It is discussed in The Covenant in Daniel 9, but explained briefly below:
In Leviticus 25 God commanded Israel to allow the land to rest every seventh year (v2), similar to the weekly Sabbath day of rest. Israel had to work the land for six years (v3), but in the seventh year was a Sabbath Year; the land had to rest (v4). In this way the years on the Jewish calendar were divided into sevens, with each seventh is a Sabbath Year.
Covenant Exile Pattern
Leviticus 26 contains the covenant promises and warnings. It states:
(1) Should Israel become unfaithful (Lev. 26:14-39); (2) It will go in exile. God will scatter them among the nations (Lev. 26:33). (3) If Israel in exile (Lev. 26:41, 44) “confess their iniquity” (v40); (4) “Then I will remember My covenant … with Abraham” (v42) “that I might be their God” (v45). God would renew His covenant with them
The Covenant Exile Pattern is therefore (1) Disobedience – (2) Exile – (3) Confession – (4) Covenant Renewal.
Leviticus 26 furthermore uses the seven-year cycle to count the number of years of exile (Lev. 26:34-35, 43). Israel would be in exile for every Sabbath Year not observed. While they are in exile, the land will enjoy its rest. The Sabbath Year cycle was therefore made part of the covenant threat of exile.
490 years of disobedience prior to exile
Jeremiah prophesied that Israel would be in exile for 70 years. On the basis of Leviticus 26 we know that each of Jeremiah’s 70 years of exile was a Sabbath year. This is confirmed by 2 Chronicles 36:21. Each of the 70 years therefore represent 7 years of disobedience. Consequently, the 70 years represent the equivalent of Seventy Weeks (490 years) of disobedience, prior to the exile.
Daniel 9 follows this covenant pattern:
(1) This prophecy was received at a time when Jerusalem was in ruins and Israel in exile (9:2, 7). The exile was the covenant penalty for disobedience: Israel was scattered to allow the land to have its rest (2Ch 36:21; Dan 9:11-13; cf. Lev. 25:2).
(2) In his prayer (9:4-19) Daniel confessedthe guilt of His people (9:5-11, 15-16), acknowledged the exile as the covenant penalty for disobedience (9:11-13), acknowledged that God had acted fairly (9:7, 14), but also prayed for the promise of covenant renewal after exile (9:4). He prayed for “Your city and Your people” (9:19, 16-17). In this way Daniel fulfilled the condition for covenant renewal after exile (Leviticus 26:40-41). On behalf of Israel, and he prayed for the renewal of Israel’s covenant privileges.
(3) This context means that, when Gabriel brought God’s answer, namely that “Seventy weeks have been decreed for your people and your holy city”, that this is a renewal of God’s covenant with Israel in terms of Leviticus 26:42, 45, for a new cycle of Seventy Weeks.
The important implications are:
(a) The covenant pattern forms the framework that binds together Daniel’s prayer in the first part of the chapter 9 and the prophecy at the end of it. God’s covenant with Israel is the central theme in the entire Daniel 9.
(b) The 490 years promised by Daniel 9 are an extension of God’s covenant with Israel.
(c) The covenant that is confirmed during the “one week” (9:27) is the final seven years of God’s time-limited renewed covenant with Israel.
(d)God’s covenant with Israel comes to an end at the end of the Seventy Weeks of years.
(e) Since Daniel 9’s 490 years are an extension of God’s covenant with Israel, and since the Sabbath year cycle is part of this covenant, every seventh year will be a Sabbath year. This means that these are 490 literal years, not prophetic years, as in Dispensationalism.
Verse 24 lists 6 goals for the 490 years, namely, to:
Finish the transgression, to make an end of sin
Make atonement for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness
Seal up vision and prophecy
And to anoint the most holy place
The first two goals—“to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins”—do not mean that a complete and utter end will be made of sin in this world. In the context of the prophecy these goals given to Israel. Israel was to show its loyalty to God when the Messiah appears. But Israel failed.
According to the New Testament the third and fourth goals—“to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness”—were fulfilled by Christ’s death.
The fifth goal—“to seal up the vision and prophecy”—is understood as that the events of the final week, particularly the Cross, would validate the Old Testament promises of the coming Messiah.
The sixth goal— “to anoint the most Holy” —refers to heaven itself. Christ’s death was a great victory over evil, and as we read in Revelation 5 and 12, Satan was cast out of heaven as a result (Rev. 12:5, 7-9).
Dispensationalism denies that Christ’s first advent (His earthly life, baptism, death, resurrection and ascension into heaven) fulfilled the Daniel 9:24 goals for the seventy week. It consequently objects to the traditional Protestant interpretation of Daniel 9.
The following are proposed guidelines for interpreting these goals:
Firstly, these goals were given to Israel to fulfill, and Israel was given 490 years to fulfill them. These goals must therefore be fulfilled during the 490 years; not at the end of that period.
Secondly, as discussed, the last seven years are the purpose and core of the 490 years. It is therefore proposed that all six goals were to be fulfilled by the events of the last seven years.
Thirdly, the goals are probably listed in the sequence in which they were to be fulfilled.
1. To finish the transgression
2. To make an end of sin
In the parallelism of the prophecy, this seems to be a single thought, expressed in two ways. One can see why Dispensationalism argues that these goals have not been fulfilled, for we still live in a world filled with transgression and sin. But it is proposed that this does not refer to sin in general, but specifically to Israel’s sin, for the following reasons:
(a) In his prayer, Daniel prayed “we have sinned, committed iniquity” (9:5) and “we have not sought the favor of the LORD our God by turning from our iniquity” (9:13). He said, “I was …confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel” (9:20). When he then hears that 490 years were decreed for Israel to fulfill these two goals (9:24), Daniel would have understood these two goals as a challenge to Israel, to manifest their loyalty toward Him and bring an end to the sinful state of their society that led to the exile.
(b) The definite article “the” identifies the transgression as some specific sin.
(c) The goals are probably listed in the sequence in which they were to be fulfilled, and these two goals are mentioned before the third goal, which is to make atonement of iniquity, which was certainly fulfilled by Christ’s death.
God gave Israel the opportunity to succeed where their fathers failed. In particular, Israel was to show its loyalty to God when the Messiah would appear. These two goals were therefore not fulfilled.
3. To make atonement for iniquity 4. To bring in everlasting righteousness
These two goals are also related; by making atonement, Jesus brought in everlasting righteousness.
Consider firstly “make atonement for iniquity”. Jesus was “the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world” (John 1:29). His blood was “poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins” (Matt. 26:28). He was sacrificed for our sins and did away “with sin” once for all when he offered himself (Heb. 7:27, 9:26-28). Through His own blood He has obtained eternal redemption (Heb. 9:12). See also Hebrews 10:10, 12, and 14.
We might be inclined to think that Christ did not bring in “everlasting righteousness” because this world is still dominated by sin. But note how the Bible speaks of the everlasting consequences of the cross as a current reality:
Hebrews 9:12 – “Eternal redemption” already exist. Rom. 5:10, 11; Col. 1:20 – We are already reconciled to God by the death of His Son. 2Co 5:19 – He already does not count our trespasses against us (See also; Col 1:22). Rom 5:18 – Justification of life to all men is already obtained. John 3:17 – The world is already saved. Col. 1:19-20 – God already reconciled all things to Himself, and already made peace through the blood of His cross.
These two goals were not conditional and were fulfilled through His death.
5. To seal up vision and prophecy
“Nabi” is actually is the word for prophet, not for prophecy. Hatam (“seal up”) can have different meanings.
To hide – “Seal up” may mean to hide something, for instance “conceal these words and seal up the book until the end of time” (Daniel 12:4). But to conceal vision and prophet seems hardly appropriate as a goal for the 490 years.
To end– “Seal up” can also mean to make an end of something. This goal could therefore be that there would be no further vision and prophet for Israel. The end of the 490 years was also the end of Israel’s special status as people of God. However, these goals were to be fulfilled through Israel, during the 490 years; not at the end of that period. One consequence of their failure may have been to bring an end to vision and prophecy for Israel, but it does not make sense to say it was a goal set for Israel, to be fulfilled during the 490 years.
To validate – A third possible meaning of hatam is to validate something, and since the other possible meanings do not fit, this is proposed as the intended meaning. It is proposed that it means that the Old Testament prophecies about the coming Messiah in general were to be validated or authenticated by Cross, for instance:
“Christ has become a servant to the circumcision on behalf of the truth of God to confirmthe promises given to the fathers” (Rom 15:8).
6. To anoint the most holy place
The word “place” is added by the translators, but accepted here. The phrase translated “most holy” (qodes qodasim) occurs more than 40 times in the Old Testament, and in every instance it refers to the sanctuary, with the possible exception of 1 Chronicles 23:13. The most holy place is the central chamber of the tabernacle, where God is present. To anoint the most holy place means to inaugurate it (Heb. 9:18-23).
But which temple is intended? If it referred to the temple that was rebuilt after the exile, the anointing should have been listed prior to the third goal of “atonement”. Furthermore, since the last seven years are the core and focus of the prophecy, all six goals should be fulfilled by the events of those seven years.
Temple in heaven
The letter to the Hebrews is significantly different from other letters in the New Testament. None of the other letters mention a temple in heaven, or Jesus as our high priest in that temple, but this is the main message of the letter to the Hebrews:
This is the “true tabernacle” (8:2), not made with hands (Heb. 9:24; cf. 8:1-2). The earthly tabernacle was a copy of this true tabernacle (Heb. 8:5; 9:24).
Similar to the words in Daniel 9:24, the temple in heaven is also called the “holy place” (Heb. 9:24; 10:19).
The first covenant was inaugurated by sprinkling the tabernacle with the blood (Heb. 9:21) of the calves and the goats (Heb. 9:19). But Hebrews tells us that the “heavens”—therefore the sanctuary in heaven—were “cleansed”, but with “better sacrifices” (Heb. 9:23), namely “through His own blood, He entered the holy place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption” (Heb. 9:12).
In other words, in Hebrews, Jesus entered the holy place after He obtained eternal redemption at the cross (Heb. 9:12). We find the same sequence in Daniel 9:24—the goal of anointing of the most holy is mentioned after the goal “to make atonement for iniquity”.
It is not proposed that there is a literal temple in heaven. The point of Hebrews is rather that the earthly temple and its ceremonies were images of the real events in heaven. The New Testament often quotes Psalm 110:1 to say that Jesus sat down at His Father’s right hand at His ascension. This event is visually presented by Revelation 5 and 12. See Introduction to the Seven Seals. Revelation 12 describes Jesus’ ascension to His Father’s throne (12:5). Then a “war in heaven” ensued (v7). The outcome was that “the accuser of our brethren has been thrown down, he who accuses them before our God day and night. And they overcame him because of the blood of the Lamb” (v10-11). “For this reason, rejoice, O heavens and you who dwell in them. Woe to the earth and the sea, because the devil has come down to you, having great wrath”.
In other words, the death of Christ enabled God to throw Satan and his angels out of heaven. It is proposed that this is the meaning of the cleansing of the “heavens” with Christ’s blood (Heb. 9:23, 12). It is also proposed that this is what is meant by the goal in Daniel 9, “to anoint the most holy place”.
It is therefore proposed that the last four goals were fulfilled through Jesus Christ on behalf of Israel. This Hebrew man atoned for the sin of the whole world. Through Israel, and particularly through this Hebrew Man Jesus that became the Lamb of God, God reconciled the world to Himself (Rom. 5:10, 11; 2Co 5:19; Col 1:19-20).
Book of Revelation
The vast majority of the people on earth do not believe in the supernatural, and since the Bible is a book about the supernatural, it is rejected. Inside the Church one major school of thought shares this view, and believes that Daniel does not predict anything, but that it reflects the events of Antiochus, more than 100 years before Christ. The Critical Interpretation of the 490 years promised by Daniel 9 is discussed in a separate article.
Dispensationalism is another major system of belief within the Church, and puts a vast gap of 2000 years between the first 69 sevens described in verses 25-26 and the last seven described in verse 27. The book of Revelation has been built on the prophecies of Daniel. An incorrect interpretation of Daniel’s prophecies inevitably distorts Revelation’s prophecies. The typical Dispensational interpretation puts everything in the last 19 chapters of Revelation in the final seven years of Daniel 9, which are interpreted as the final seven years before the return of Christ. Since this article has shown that those seven years do not describe end time events, but the Messiah-events 2000 years ago, the whole Dispensational interpretation of Revelation and of eschatology collapses.
The historical view of Daniel 9, as defended in this article, which interprets the last seven years as fulfilled in the time of Christ, was once held by the majority in the Church. But today it is nearly non-existent. But Daniel was promised:
“… seal up the book until the end of time; many will go back and forth, and knowledge will increase”. (12:4)
Daniel 9:24 goals Fulfilled in Jesus Christ – Dispensationalism objects to the traditional Protestant interpretation of Daniel 9 by claiming that Christ’s first advent did not fulfill the Daniel 9:24 goals set for the seventy weeks (9:24). This is true, but remember, Israel failed. There is something which God must do through His people to end the sinful state of this world, and it was His intention to do it through Israel 2000 years ago, but Israel failed.
Revelation – The book of Revelation is built on the foundation of the prophecies of Daniel. An incorrect interpretation of Daniel’s prophecies inevitably distorts Revelation’s prophecies. Dispensationalism puts the last 19 chapters of Revelation in the final seven years of Daniel 9, which are interpreted as the final seven years before the return of Christ. But this article has shown that those seven years describe the Messiah-events 2000 years ago.
Various other differences between the text and the Dispensationalism may be identified, such as:
– That Jerusalem will be rebuilt twice,
– That the Antichrist breaks his own covenant,
– That the sanctuary will be destroyed during the 490 years decreed for it,
– That the last week will end with the return of Christ,
– That the goals in 9:24 have not been fulfilled by the Cross and
– That Jerusalem is awarded a total of 1490 years.
The prophecy of Daniel 9 was given while Jerusalem and the temple were in ruins. The prophecy promises that Jerusalem will be rebuilt (9:25), but it also warns that Jerusalem will be destroyed again (9:26). This was fulfilled with the rebuilding of Jerusalem a few hundred years before Christ and its destruction in 70 AD.
But Dispensationalism requires the sanctuary to be rebuilt a second time in the future, and the sacrificial system to be revived. However:
The prophecy explicitly promises only one rebuilding of the city and the sanctuary. There is not the least bit of evidence in the text for a second rebuilding, or that sacrifices will be resumed. If the temple was to be rebuilt after the destruction of verse 26, the prophecy would have explicitly stated this, given that it is so clear about the rebuilding in verse 25.
Since the sacrificial system has been abolished 2000 years ago, there can never be a valid return to the old covenant and its earthly temple worship. Christ, the Antitype, has terminated once for all the “shadow” and inaugurated a “better covenant” that offers His righteousness as the everlasting righteousness (see Hebr. 7:22; cf. chap. 10:12; Rom. 3:22, 25). That is the very meaning of the statement “in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering” (9:27).
The reinstatement of the sacrifices stems from the assumption that Daniel 9 covers the same ground as the other prophecies of Daniel, but this is not a valid assumption: Daniel 9 is a literal prophecy, dealing with Israelonly, and with the 490 years only. The other prophecies in Daniel are symbolic and deal with all nations and with all time.
Breaks his covenant
In Dispensationalism the Antichrist breaks his covenant with Israel after 3½ years, but according to 9:27 the covenant is confirmed for the full seven years.
Destroyed in the middle of the last week
In Dispensationalism the sanctuary will be destroyed in the middle of the last week, when “he will put a stop to sacrifice”. However, since the full 490 years have been determined for the city of Daniel’s people (9:24), the sanctuary and its services will not be destroyed during the 490 years, but only at or after the end of the 490 years.
Return of Christ
Dispensationalism maintains that the last seven years end with the return of Christ, but the prophecy in no way indicates the return of Christ. If the 490 years are to end with Christ’s return, would verse 27 not end with a description of His glorious return, as the other prophecies in Daniel do? In contrast the Daniel 9 prophecy ends in the accumulation of desolations and chaos.
Daniel 9:24 lists 6 goals to be achieved by the events of the 70 sevens, including:
“to make an end of sin”
“to make atonement for iniquity” and
“to bring in everlasting righteousness”.
In Dispensationalism the 69th week ends a few days before the death of Christ, namely at His triumphal entry into Jerusalem, while the 70th week still lies in our future. Consequently, the 70 weeks do not include the death of Christ, and the goals in 9:24 have not been fulfilled by the Cross. Dispensationalism proposes that these goals will be fulfilled at the end of the last seven years, with the return of Christ.
But this proposal denies Israel its responsibility and denies the 490 years their purpose. The goals in 9:24 were set for Israel to achieve, and Israel was given 490 years to accomplish those goals. In other words, these goals were to be achieved during the 490 years, through Daniel’s people.
Since the final seven years is the core of the 490 years, these goals are particularly achieved by the events of the last seven years, as described by the first part of verse 27:
“he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease”
In Dispensationalism this describes the work of an end time Antichrist. An Antichrist will certainly not fulfill the wonderful goals of verse 24.
Daniel did not pray for a messiah of for the goals in verse 24. He prayed for Jerusalem. But the prophecy includes the Messiah and the goals because that was Jerusalem’s purpose. Jerusalem was to be rebuilt and 490 years were allocated to it to receive the Messiah, and through the Messiah to realize the goals. The Messiah was the means and the goals were the end. To remove these goals from Israel and Jerusalem is to remove the reason for Israel’s election.
The complex dispensational view with respect to the sacrificial system is as follows:
Stopped by the Babylonian captivity (prior to receiving the prophecy) Re-introducedwhen the sanctuary is rebuilt, as predicted by 9:25; Stopped when the sanctuary is destroyed, as predicted by 9:26; Re-introduced in the beginning of the last seven years (not explicitly in the prophecy); Stopped by the Antichrist in the middle of the last seven years (assuming this is what 9:27 refers to); Re-introduced at the end of the 70th week, at the visible return of Christ, after which the sacrificial system and the Jewish period will be continued for one thousand years. (No mention of this in the prophecy)
Dispensationalism postulates the Millennium as a period of Jewish dominance. This allocates to the Jews not only 490 years, but 490 years plus the millennium; in total 1490 years. But 70 weeks have been determined for the city of “your people” (9:24). In other words, sacrifices will not be continued beyond the 70 weeks.
A strange aspect of Dispensationalism is the proposal that sin will continue for 1000 years after the return of Christ. This is inconsistent with the goal “to make an end of sin” (9:24).
Two completely separate and unrelated prophecies
To postpone the last seven years to the end of the age destroys the simple unity of the prophecy. It divides the prophecy into two completely separate and unrelated prophecies:
One about Christ 2000 years ago, and
One about some future Antichrist.
The last seven years are the core of the prophecy, but Dispensationalism allocates those seven years to the Antichrist. This converts a prophecy about the Christ into a prophecy about the Antichrist.
Rebuild again – The prophecy promises that Jerusalem will be rebuilt, which happened before the time of Christ, but Dispensationalism requires the sanctuary to be rebuilt a second time, namely during the last seven years before Christ Returns.
Breaks his covenant – In Dispensationalism the Antichrist breaks his covenant with Israel after 3½ years, but according to 9:27 the covenant is confirmed for the full seven years.
Destroyed in the middle of the last week – In Dispensationalism the sanctuary will be destroyed in the middle of the last week, but since the full 490 years have been determined for the city, the sanctuary will not be destroyed during the 490 years.
Return of Christ – Dispensationalism maintains that the last week ends with the return of Christ, but according to the prophecy the last week ends in chaos.
Goals fulfilled – In Dispensationalism the goals in 9:24 have not been fulfilled by the Cross, but will be fulfilled at the end of the last seven years, with the return of Christ. This proposal denies the 70 sevens their purpose. The goals in 9:24 were given to Israel to fulfill, and Israel was given 490 years to fulfill those goals.
Millennium – The prophecy promised that sacrifices will be revived when Jerusalem is rebuilt, but also predicts that the sacrifices will be stopped. In contrast, the complex Dispensational view proposes that the sacrifices will be stopped three times and again revived three times; the last time at the beginning of the Millennium. But there can never be a valid return to the old covenant and its earthly temple worship.
By picturing the Millennium as a period for Jewish dominance, Dispensationalism awards the Jews a total of 1490 years.
Two completely separate and unrelated prophecies – To postpone the last seven years of final crisis to the end of the age divides the prophecy it into two completely separate and unrelated prophecies; One about Christ 2000 years ago, and one about some future Antichrist.
In Dispensationalism the last week is the last seven years before Christ returns. However, the Poetic Pattern and the repetition of words indicate that the desolations in verse 27 are the same as the destruction of Jerusalem in verse 26. This happened in AD 70. The last week, described earlier in verse 27, must therefore be prior to AD 70. To propel the last seven years into the distant future defeats the purpose of the 483 years and converts this prophecy about the Christ into a prophecy about the antichrist.
Jesus and the Abomination of Desolation
“Therefore when you see the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand) …” (Mat. 24:15)
Here Jesus by name refers to Daniel and to the “abomination of desolation”. This phrase is used a number of times in Daniel. This phrase is not used in Daniel 9 in that format, but the last part of verse 27 does refer to desolation and abominations:
“and on the wing of abominations will come one who makes desolate, even until a complete destruction, one that is decreed, is poured out on the one who makes desolate” (NASB)
An abomination is some grave sin. A desolation is a destruction.
(1) That our Lord in Matthew 24:15 placed the “abomination of desolation” at ‘the end,’ just before His second coming in glory (Matthew 24:15, 21, 29, 30). (2) That the “Abomination of Desolation” is the stop that will be put to sacrifice “in the middle of theweek” (9:27). (3) Therefore, that “he will put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering” at the end of the age; just prior to Christ’s return.
However, Jesus, in Matthew 24:15, did not put the “abomination of desolation” at the end of the age, as the Dispensationalism claims. To the contrary, He linked it to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70. The parallel statement is Luke 21:20-23 (compare Mat 24:16-19). Luke, writing to Gentiles, who were not familiar with the book of Daniel, interpreted Jesus’ reference to the abomination of desolation as the Roman armies surrounding Jerusalem. See Little Apocalypse.
The question in this section relates to the chronological sequence of the destruction of the Jerusalem in 9:26 and the last seven years in verse 27.
Verses 26 and 27 read:
26 … after 62 weeks shall Messiah be cut off … and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city … 27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week; and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease
Notice the “he” used twice in verse 27.
The destruction of the city in 9:26 is dated to 70 AD. Dispensationalism assumes that the events in verses 25 to 27 are presented in chronological sequence. Consequently, since the last seven years (9:27) is mentioned after the destruction of Jerusalem (9:26), the last seven years follow after AD 70. Since the first 483 years came to an end at the time of Christ, this necessitates a gap between the first 483 years and the last seven years.
It would also mean that the “he” of 9:27 cannot be the Messiah, for the Messiah died about four decades earlier. The only remaining option is that “he” refers to the prince whose people destroyed the city in AD 70 (9:26). It should logically follow that “he” is to the Roman Caesar in 70 AD, and that the last week is the time around 70 AD. But, as already stated, Dispensationalism proposes that the Roman Empire will be revived in the years just prior to Christ’s return and that “he” (9:27) is the Roman Caesar at that time.
Not in strict chronological sequence
These proposals may be disputed in a number of ways:
Firstly, because of the poetic parallelism, as discussed in the previous article, the assumption of a strict chronological sequence is incorrect. The following examples confirm that the prophecy is not presented in chronological sequence:
The rebuilding of the city (25c) is mentioned after the appearance of the anointed one (25b), while the city was rebuilt four hundred years before the Anointed.
The prince causes sacrifices to cease (9:27) after the sanctuary is destroyed (9:26). But if the sanctuary is destroyed there does not remain a sacrificial system that can be ceased.
Since 70 weeks have been determined for the city of “your people” (9:24), the destruction of the city and the sanctuary in verse 26 must occur after the end of the 70 weeks, and therefore after the 70th week of verse 27.
Summary: The last part of verse 27 describes the destruction of Jerusalem. The covenant in verse 27 is therefore confirmed prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD.
Roman Empire Destroyed
The question in this section is what the last part of verse 27 refers to. This verse describes undefined abominations and a complete destruction:
NASB: “and on the wing of abominations will come one who makes desolate, even until a complete destruction, one that is decreed, is poured out on the one who makes desolate”
KJV: “and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate“
Notice the difference in the final words of the two translations:
In the KJV translation desolations are poured on the desolated one which, in the context, seems to refer to the city Jerusalem, which is destroyed in verse 26.
In the NASB translation desolations are poured out on a desolator which, in the context, refers to the people who destroy the city (9:26). The NASB hereby introduces a concept not mentioned by the previous verses.
Dispensationalism uses the NASB-type translation to argue as follows:
(1) The last part of 9:27 refers to the destruction of the Roman Empire. (2) Since the Roman Empire was not destroyed in Christ’s time, it must be in our future. (3) Since 9:27 describes the last seven of the 490 years, the last seven years must be in our future today.
Dispensationalism further proposes that the Roman Empire will be revived in those last seven years, to be destroyed again at Christ’s return at the end of those last seven years.
However, since different translations present 9:27 differently, we must assume that this verse may be translated in more than one way. We should not rely too much on a specific translation.
Secondly, according to the literary analysis of the text, the desolation in the last past of 9:27 refers to the destruction of the city, some 40 years after Christ’s death. See Poetic Pattern in the previous article or the article Chronological sequence in Daniel 9.
Furthermore, the last part of 9:27 repeats the main words and concepts from the last part of verse 26, which describes the destruction of Jerusalem. Below verses 26 and 27 are compared:
26 Then after the sixty-two weeks the Messiah will be cut off and have nothing,
and the people of the prince who is to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary And its end will come with a flood; even to the end there will be war; desolations are determined.
27 And he will make a firm covenant with the many for one week, but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering;
and on the wing of abominations will come one who makes desolate, even until a complete destruction, one that is decreed, is poured out on the one who makes desolate.”
Note the key phrases from verse 26 that are repeated in verse 27:
Both verses refer to desolations (Strong number H8074) that are decreed (Strong number H2782). The NASB in v26 reads “desolations are determined” and in v27 “desolate … one that is decreed”.
Both verses use water as symbol of the force of destruction. In verse 26 desolations will come with a flood, while they are poured out in verse 27.
Both verses include the concept of completion. Verse 26 refers to the end (of the city) (NASB). Verse 27 similarly refers to a “complete destruction” (NASB), which is another way of expressing the end of the thing that is destroyed.
Dispensationalism associates the desolation in verse 27 with an end time despot, but the similarity between the last parts of verses 26 and 27 implies that they refer to the same event, which is identified by verse 26 as the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. The last part of verse 27 does not deal with the destruction of the Roman Empire.
Above Matthew 24:15 is discussed. If we do make the assumption that Jesus in Matthew 24:15 referred to Daniel 9:27, as Dispensationalism does, then Jesus’ statement in Matthew 24:15 confirms that the last part of 9:27 refers to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70.
In the parallelism of the prophecy, the destruction is mentioned twice, with the description of the last seven years in-between. Those last seven years must therefore be limited to the time prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70. It cannot describe an end time antichrist.
The Daniel 9 prophecy promises the reconstruction of Jerusalem to receive the Messiah, but it also predicts that Jerusalem will be destroyed as a consequence of Israel’s rejection of the Messiah. The destruction of Jerusalem is an integral part of the Messiah-events of 2000 years ago.
Entire 9:26 repeated
The previous article concluded that it is the Messiah who dies in 9:26a, who confirms the covenant for the last seven years and who puts a stop to sacrifices in 9:27a. Since we have now shown that the last part of 9:27 repeats the last part of 9:26, it follows that the entire verse 27 is a repeat of verse 26 (NASB):
Messiah cut off after the sixty-two weeks
people … will destroy the city
he will make a firm covenant with the many for one week … in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice
and on the wing of abominations will come one who makes desolate, even until a complete destruction
To appreciate this repetition requires a high level view of the prophecy. It consists of three divisions; each provides information from the perspective of a different period of time:
(24) Verse 24 sets the goals for that entire period of 490 years.
(25-26) Verses 25 and 26 describe events, including the killing of the Messiah and, consequently, the destruction of the city after the end of the 483 years, from the perspective of the first 483 years.
(27) Verse 27 describes these same events, but from the perspective of the last seven years.
What does the last part of 9:27 mean?
9:27c reads “On the wing of abominations will come one who makes desolate” (NASB). In other words, a desolator will arrive shortly after (on the wing of) abominations. A desolator is a person; a destroyer. An abomination is some repulsive sin. The desolator in 9:27 is therefore a person who arrives after some repulsive sin to make “desolate, even until a complete destruction”.
In the context the repulsive sin is Israel’s rejection, first of its Messiah and later of the Holy Spirit. The desolation refers to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans 40 years later.
Above three arguments used by Dispensationalism, to show that there is a gap of 2000 years or more between the first 69 weeks and the 70th week, are discussed and opposed. Other arguments against such a gap include:
Revived Roman Prince
The Romans destroyed the city (9:26) in AD 70. Their “prince” must therefore be the Roman Caesar. In Dispensationalism the “he” in verse 27 is this Roman Prince that will rule in the final years before the return of Christ. This means that the Roman Empire must exist during those final years. But how can the Roman Empire be revived 1500 years after it ceased to exist? And how can one claim that the Roman Empire of ancient history was the people of an end time antichrist if the people and their prince live 2000 years apart?
It is to the contrary proposed here that, since the prince in verse 26 is the Roman Caesar, and since no known ruler of the Roman Empire ever confirmed a covenant with the Jews for seven years, that this prince cannot be the “he” in verse 27.
Defeats the purpose
The only event during the initial 483 years is the construction of the city. But the prophecy predicts significant events for the last seven years. The covenant is confirmed for the last seven years and the sacrifices are caused to cease in the middle of those last seven years. The last seven years are therefore the core and purpose of the 490 years. The only purpose of the first 483 years is to foretell the timing of the last seven years. Hence, to dislodge that last seven years from the previous 483 years and to propel it into the distant future is to defeat the purpose of the 483 years.
No indication of a gap
The wording of the text of Daniel in no way indicates a break or gap. There appears to be no valid reason, or defensible ground, for separating the 70th week from the previous 69.
To postpone the last seven years of final crisis to the end of the age is a form of exegesis without a precedent in all prophetic exposition.
It destroys the simple unity of the prophecy and divides it into two completely separate and unrelated prophecies; one about Christ 2000 years ago, and one about some future antichrist. Dispensationalism places most of the prophecies in book of Revelation in the last seven years. Because of this emphasis that is placed by Dispensationalism on the last seven years this prophecy about the Christ is effectively converted into a prophecy about the antichrist.
A major issue in this article is to identify the desolations in the last part of verse 27. In this article it is argues that this refers to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70. It then follows that the last week, described earlier in verse 27, must have been prior to AD 70:
Abomination of Desolation– Jesus spoke about the “abomination of desolation” in Matthew 24:15. The parallel verses in Luke 21:20-23 indicates that He referred to the Roman armies that surrounded Jerusalem in AD 70. Since the phrase “abomination of desolation” could possibly be linked to the last part of Daniel 9:27, it is possible that the desolations in that verse might refer to the events of AD 70.
Desolations Repeated – The last part of verse 26 describes the destruction of Jerusalem. The Poetic Pattern of the prophecy indicates that the destruction in verse 27 refers to the same event. This is confirmed by the repetition of words and concepts from the last part of verse 26 in verse 27.
The covenant in verse 27 is therefore confirmed prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. It cannot be an end-time covenant.
Other arguments against such a gap include:
Chronological Sequence– The destruction of the Jerusalem is mentioned in 9:26 and the last seven years in verse 27. Dispensationalism uses this to argue for a gap, but the prophecy is not given in strict chronological sequence, as implied by the poetic parallelism and as confirmed by examples from the prophecy.
Roman Empire be revived– How can the Roman Empire be revived 1500 years after it ceased to exist?
Defeats the purpose – The only purpose of the first 483 years is to foretell the timing of the last seven years. Hence, to dislodge that last seven years from the previous 483 years and to propel it into the distant future is to defeat the purpose of the 483 years.
No indication of a gap– The wording of the text of Daniel in no way indicates a break or gap.
Previous articles – The previous articles already concluded that it is the Messiah that works in those last week and that He confirms God’s covenant with Israel. The last week therefore cannot be the time of an end-time antichrist.
The last part of 9:27 links desolations (destruction) to abominations (severe sin). The repulsive sin is here understood to be Israel’s rejection its Messiah. The desolation refers to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans 40 years later.
Dispensationalism converts this prophecy about the Christ into a prophecy about the Antichrist.